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Minimum age laws prevent young people and those around them from falling prey to preventable gun violence and suicide.

Purchasing and possessing a lethal weapon is a serious responsibility and one that should not be taken lightly. Our country sets minimum ages for driving, voting, and drinking alcohol to encourage responsible behavior. Because young adults are at elevated risk of attempting suicide and engaging in violent behaviors, strengthening minimum age laws for purchasing and possessing guns will help protect young people and the public at large.

Background

61%
Increase in gun suicides among minors
Between 2011 and 2020, firearm suicides involving minors increased by a disturbing 61%. Laws that require safe storage of guns have the potential to save the lives of young people in crisis.

Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death 1999-2020 on CDC WONDER Online Database, released in 2021. Data are from the Multiple Cause of Death Files, 1999-2020, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html on Mar 21, 2022. Calculations include children ages 0–17 and were based on the most recently available data: 2016 to 2020.

Laws imposing minimum age requirements for the possession and purchase of firearms are intended to decrease access to firearms by young people and, correspondingly, to decrease the number of suicides, homicides, and unintentional shootings among that population. Given that young people are at elevated risk of engaging in violent behaviors against themselves or others, these laws have the potential to protect a particularly vulnerable group.

A robust body of academic literature shows that the human brain continues to develop well past the age of 21, particularly in areas that may alter a person’s likelihood of involvement in violence against themselves or others.

  • The parts of the brain responsible for impulse control, judgement, and long-range planning are among the last areas of the brain to fully mature, and in fact, may continue to develop until at least age 26.1
  • The developing brains of adolescents and young adults may put them at higher risk of making risky decisions. Hormonal changes can have significant effects on self-control, decision making, emotions, risk-taking behaviors, and aggressive impulses.2

The biological processes that take place during late adolescence and young adulthood can predispose individuals to riskier and more aggressive behaviors.

  • A study of offenders incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms found that 17% of offenders would have been prohibited from buying a gun if their state had a law that raised the minimum age to possess a handgun to 21 years.3
  • Young people commit gun offenses in high numbers. In 2019, 28,568 young people between the ages of 10 and 21 were arrested for weapons offenses, such as illegally carrying or possessing a firearm.4 This group made up 26% of all arrests for weapons offenses that year.5
  • Data also suggests that young people disproportionately commit gun homicides. For example, 18-20-year olds comprise just 4% of the US population, but account for 17% of known homicide offenders.6

Because impulse regulation and emotional control continues to develop into the mid-20s, young people, including adolescents and people under age 21, are at elevated risk of attempting suicide.

  • Suicide risk is often much higher in the early stages of the onset of major psychiatric conditions, and these symptoms usually first develop in adolescence or early adulthood.7
  • Suicide attempts that result in death or hospital treatment peak at age 16, but are at the highest rates from age 14 through age 21.8
  • Gun access can significantly increase these risks. The association between firearm availability and suicide is strongest among adolescents and young adults.9

Laws that prohibit unsupervised possession or purchase of firearms by children and young people can reduce harm among people under age 21.

  • One study found that state laws raising the minimum legal age to purchase firearms to 21 years were associated with a nine percent decline in rates of firearm suicides among 18-to-20-year-olds.10
  • Controlling for other factors, unintentional firearm deaths and firearm suicides among youth (ages 0-19) also fell after the federal minimum age law was enacted.11

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We’re in this together. To build a safer America—one where children and parents in every neighborhood can learn, play, work, and worship without fear of gun violence—we need you standing beside us in this fight.

As described below, federal law and the laws in most states continue to allow unsupervised access to firearms by individuals under age 21. Additional information about laws preventing child access to firearms is included in our summary on Child Access Prevention.

Summary of Federal Law

Federal law in this area distinguishes between long guns (rifles and shotguns) and handguns, and between gun possession and gun sales. Federal law also provides stronger age restrictions for sales by licensed gun sellers.

Federal Minimum Age for Gun Sales and Transfers

Handguns

  • Licensed firearms dealers may not sell or deliver a handgun or ammunition for a handgun to any person the dealer has reasonable cause to believe is under age 21.12
  • Unlicensed persons may not sell, deliver or otherwise transfer a handgun or handgun ammunition to any person the transferor knows or has reasonable cause to believe is under age 18, with certain exceptions.*13

Long Guns (Rifles and Shotguns)

  • Licensed firearms dealers may not sell or deliver a long gun, or ammunition for a long gun, to any person the dealer knows or has reasonable cause to believe is under age 18.14
  • Unlicensed persons may sell, deliver, or otherwise transfer a long gun or long gun ammunition to a person of any age.

Minimum Age for Gun Possession: Subject to limited exceptions*, federal law prohibits the possession of a handgun or handgun ammunition by any person under the age of 18.15,16 Federal law provides no minimum age for the possession of long guns or long gun ammunition.

*Exceptions: Federal law provides exceptions for the temporary transfer and possession of handguns and handgun ammunition for specified activities, including employment, ranching, farming, target practice and hunting.17

Summary of State Law

Several states and the District of Columbia impose minimum age requirements, some of which extend beyond those contained in federal law. Those laws generally fall into four categories:

  • Laws imposing a minimum age for handgun or firearm purchases ;
  • Laws imposing a minimum age for all long gun purchases, from licensed or unlicensed sellers;
  • Laws imposing age requirements for possession of handguns; and
  • Laws imposing a minimum age for possession of long guns.

Additional information about laws preventing child access to firearms is included in our summary on Child Access Prevention.

State Minimum Age Laws*
StatePurchase of a HandgunPurchase of a Long GunPossession of a Handgun
Possession of a Long Gun
Alabama 18181819
Alaska182018211622
1623
Arizona18241825 1826
 1827
Arkansas182818291830
California213121321833
18 for semiautomatic rifles (effective January 1, 2022; expanded to all firearms effective July 2023)34
Colorado1835
Connecticut213618372138
Delaware2139214021, subject to exceptions for people with concealed carry permits, recreation, and hunting41
21 for rifles, subject to exceptions for people with concealed carry permits, recreation, and hunting. No age limit for shotguns.42
District of Columbia214318442145
21 or 18 with parental consent46
Florida214721481849
1850
Georgia18 511852
Hawaii215321542155
2156
Idaho18571858
18 59
Illinois216021612162
2163
Indiana18641865
1866
Iowa216718682169
1870
Kansas1871
Kentucky18721873
Louisiana187418 751776
Maine187716 for transfers, 18 for most sales 78
Maryland21 7918 8021 81
21 for assault weapons82
Massachusetts21 8318 8421 85
 15 (with parental consent) or 18 86
Michigan18 for private sales, 21 for purchases from dealers87 18 8818 89
18 90
Minnesota18 in cities or 14 outside cities911892
14 (with firearms safety certificate), otherwise 16 93
Mississippi189418951896
Missouri18971898
Montana
Nebraska21991810018101
Nevada10218103
18
14 (with a hunting license and parental permission)104
New Hampshire18105
New Jersey211061810721108
18109
New Mexico19110
New York2111121112
16113
North Carolina1811418115
North Dakota“a minor”116 18117
Ohio2111818119
Oklahoma181201812118122
18123
Oregon181241812518126
18127
Pennsylvania181281812918130
18131
Rhode Island21 13218 13318 134
18 135
South Carolina 18 136 18 137
South Dakota18138
Tennessee1813918 14018141
Texas18 14218 143
Utah 18144 1814518146
18147
Vermont21 (without a hunting safety certificate)14821 (without a hunting safety certificate)14916150
Virginia1815118152
Washington2115321 (for semiautomatic rifles)15421 (for possession outside private property)155
18156
21 (for possession of semiautomatic rifles outside private property)157
West Virginia18158
18159
Wisconsin181601816118162
18163
Wyoming 21164 18165
* Many state minimum age laws provide exceptions that allow minors to possess firearms in one or more of the following situations: in the person’s home, on the person’s property, with parental permission, for hunting, for firearm safety lessons, for target shooting, or for similar activities. Not all of these exceptions are noted in this table or in the citations.

State Laws Governing Minimum Age to Purchase and Possess Firearms

For citations to these laws, please see the chart above.

States Imposing Minimum Age Requirements for All Firearm Purchases

Although federal law prohibits licensed dealers from selling long guns to persons under 18, there is no federal regulation of the sale of long guns by unlicensed dealers to minors. Similarly, while federal law prohibits handgun sales by licensed dealers to persons under 21, unlicensed dealers are prohibited only from selling handguns to persons under 18. As listed above, many states have imposed a minimum age for the purchase of all firearms, including both handguns and long guns, regardless of whether they are purchased from a licensed firearms dealer.

States with Stricter Minimum Age Requirements for Possession of Handguns than Federal Law

Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Washington, and the District of Columbia impose minimum age requirements for the possession of handguns which are stricter than the federal minimum of 18.166

States Imposing Minimum Age Requirements for Possession of Long Guns

While federal law prohibits federally licensed firearms dealers from selling a long gun to anyone under 18, there is no federal minimum age for possession of a long gun. Twenty-three states have enacted laws to at least partially close this gap, and impose a minimum age at which persons can possess long guns. Many of these laws contain exceptions which allow younger children to possess long guns where the minor’s parent or guardian is present, or when the minor is engaged in hunting or target shooting.

GET THE FACTS

Gun violence is a complex problem, and while there’s no one-size-fits-all solution, we must act. Our reports bring you the latest cutting-edge research and analysis about strategies to end our country’s gun violence crisis at every level.

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Selected Local Law

New York City

In New York City, however, no person under age 21 may be granted a permit or license to purchase, possess or carry any firearm, with certain exceptions. It is also unlawful to transfer a firearm to any person under age 21 unless he or she is exempted. A person under 21 may carry, fire or use a rifle or shotgun without being subject to the permit requirement if he or she is in the presence of, or under the direct supervision of, a permit holder, or engaged in a military drill, competition, or target practice at a firing range.167

Key Legislative Elements

The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.

  • Minimum age of 21 is imposed for all handgun sales, from licensed or unlicensed sellers (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, Vermont, and District of Columbia).
  • Minimum age of 18 is imposed for all long gun sales, from licensed or unlicensed sellers (23 states and the District of Columbia).
  • Minimum age of 21 is imposed for possession of handguns (Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York and the District of Columbia).
  • Minimum age of 18 is imposed for possession of long guns (16 states and the District of Columbia).
  • Younger teens are allowed to possess long guns only under direct adult supervision.
  1. Elizabeth R. Sowell, et al., “In Vivo Evidence for Post-adolescent Brain Maturation in Frontal and Striatal Regions,” Nature Neuroscience 2, no. 10 (1999); Tulio M. Otero and Lauren A. Barker, “The Frontal Lobes and Executive Functioning,” in Handbook of Executive Functioning (New York: Springer, 2013).[]
  2. Mariam Arain, et al., “Maturation of the Adolescent Brain,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 9 (2013); Allan Siegel and Jeff Victoroff, “Understanding Human Aggression: New Insights from Neuroscience.” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 32, no. 4 (2009): 210–211.[]
  3. Katherine A. Vittes, Jon S. Vernick, and Daniel W. Webster, “Legal Status and Source of Offenders’ Firearms in States with the Least Stringent Criteria for Gun Ownership,” Injury Prevention 19, no. 1 (2013).[]
  4. 2019 Crime in the United States, Table 38, Uniform Crime Reporting Program, Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, https://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2019/crime-in-the-u.s.-2019/topic-pages/tables/table-38.[]
  5. Id.[]
  6. Calculated using data from the FBI’s Supplementary Homicide Reports and US Census Bureau. Uniform Crime Reporting Program: Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHR), Washington, DC: Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation; US Census Bureau Population Estimates.[]
  7. Merete Nordentoft, Preben Bo Mortensen, and Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, “Absolute Risk of Suicide after First Hospital Contact in Mental Disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry 68, no. 10 (2011); Ronald C. Kessler, et al., “Lifetime Prevalence and Age-of-onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” Archives of General Psychiatry 62, no. 6 (2005).[]
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), “Fatal and NonFatal Injury Data,” last accessed Feb. 26, 2019, https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars. Figures represent an average of the five most recent years of available data (2013-2017).[]
  9. See Johanna Birckmayer and David Hemenway, “Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: are Youth Disproportionately Affected?,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 31, no. 3 (2001); Matthew Miller and David Hemenway, “The Relationship between Firearms and Suicide: a Review of the Literature,” Aggression and Violent Behavior 4, no. 1 (1999).[]
  10. Daniel W. Webster, Jon S. Vernick, April M. Zeoli, and Jennifer A. Manganello, “Association Between Youth–focused Firearm Laws and Youth Suicides,” JAMA 292, no. 5 (2004).[]
  11. Mark Gius, “The Impact of Minimum Age and Child Access Prevention Laws on Firearm-related Youth Suicides and Unintentional Deaths,” The Social Science Journal 52, no. 2 (2015).[]
  12. 18 U.S.C. § 922(b)(1), (c)(1).[]
  13. 18 U.S.C. § 922(x)(1), (5).[]
  14. 18 U.S.C. § 922(b)(1), (c)(1).[]
  15. 18 U.S.C. § 922(x)(2), (5).[]
  16. This minimum age provision has been the subject of various challenges and has generally been upheld, see NRA v. ATF, 700 F. 3d 185 (5th Cir. 2013).[]
  17. 18 U.S.C. § 922(x)(3).[]
  18. Ala. Code § 13A-11-57. See also Ala. Code § 13A-11-76.[]
  19. Ala. Code § 13A-11-72(b).[]
  20. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.210(a)(6).[]
  21. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.210(a)(6).[]
  22. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a)(3).[]
  23. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a)(3).[]
  24. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3109(A).[]
  25. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3109(A).[]
  26. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3109(A). However, this restriction does not apply to possession of a firearm on private property owned or leased by the minor or the minor’s parent, grandparent or guardian.[]
  27. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3109(A). However, this restriction does not apply to possession of a firearm on private property owned or leased by the minor or the minor’s parent, grandparent or guardian.[]
  28. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-109(a).[]
  29. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-109(a).[]
  30. Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-119(a)(1), (e).[]
  31. Cal. Penal Code § 27505(a).[]
  32. Cal. Penal Code §§ 27505(a); 27510(a). Some exceptions for people over 18 with hunting permits, as well as military and law enforcement.[]
  33. Cal. Penal Code § 29610; 29615.[]
  34. Cal. Penal Code § 29610; 29615.[]
  35. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-108.5(1), (2). Some exceptions for people hunting, attending shooting courses or competitions, or with parental consent.[]
  36. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-34(b).[]
  37. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-37a(b), (c).[]
  38. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-36f.[]
  39. Del. Code Ann. tit. 24, § 903.[]
  40. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1445.[]
  41. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1445.[]
  42. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1445.[]
  43. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4507.[]
  44. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2507.06(1). See also D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, § 2302.1, 2302.3.[]
  45. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(a)(1).[]
  46. D.C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.03, D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, § 2301.1.[]
  47. Fla. Stat. § 790.065(13).[]
  48. Fla. Stat. § 790.065(13).[]
  49. Fla. Stat. § 790.22(3), (5).[]
  50. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.22(3), (5).[]
  51. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-101.1(b); see § 16-11-101.1(a)(1) (defining “minor”).[]
  52. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-132(b). Some exceptions for hunting or target shooting.[]
  53. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-2(a), (d).[]
  54. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-2(a), (d).[]
  55. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-2(a), (d).[]
  56. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-2(a), (d). These restrictions are subject to certain exceptions regarding possession of long guns by licensed hunters, etc.[]
  57. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-3302A.[]
  58. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-3302F(1).[]
  59. Idaho Code Ann. §§ 18-3302A, 18-3302E; 18-3302G.[]
  60. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(a), 65/4.[]
  61. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3(a), 65/4.[]
  62. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(1), 65/4(a)(2)(i).[]
  63. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(1), 65/4(a)(2)(i).[]
  64. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-2-3.[]
  65. Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-10-3, 35-47-10-5.[]
  66. Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-10-3, 35-47-10-5.[]
  67. Iowa Code § 724.22(2), 724.15(2)(A).[]
  68. Iowa Code § 724.22(1).[]
  69. Iowa Code § 724.22.[]
  70. Iowa Code § 724.22.[]
  71. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(14), (k).[]
  72. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.110(1)(a).[]
  73. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.100.[]
  74. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:91.[]
  75. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:91.[]
  76. La. Rev. Stat. § 14:95.8(A).[]
  77. Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 17-A, § 554-B.[]
  78. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 17-A, § 554-A.[]
  79. Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety § 5-134(d).[]
  80. Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety § 5-134(d)(1)(ii).[]
  81. Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety §§ 5-101(r), 5-133(d).  Maryland’s minimum age requirement applies to “regulated firearms,” which are defined as handguns and assault weapons.[]
  82. Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety §§ 5-101(r), 5-133(d).  Maryland’s minimum age requirement applies to “regulated firearms,” which are defined as handguns and assault weapons.[]
  83. (Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 130, 131E(a).[]
  84. (Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 130, 131E(a).[]
  85. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131.[]
  86. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 129B.[]
  87. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.422(3)(b); Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.422(11).[]
  88. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.223(2). This restriction applies to the sale of guns that are more than 26 inches in length.[]
  89. Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.234f.[]
  90. Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.234f.[]
  91. Minn. Stat. § 609.66.[]
  92. Minn. Stat. § 624.713, subd. 1(1).[]
  93. Minn. Stat. §§ 97B.021.[]
  94. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-13.[]
  95. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-13.[]
  96. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-14.[]
  97. See Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.080, which refers to 18 U.S.C. § 922(x).[]
  98. Applies when a person “recklessly” sells to a minor. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.060.1(2). A person “acts recklessly” or is reckless under Missouri law when he or she consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk that circumstances exist or that a result will follow, and such disregard constitutes a gross deviation from the standard of care which a reasonable person would exercise in the situation. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 562.016.4[]
  99. Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 69-2403, 69-2404. A handgun purchase certificate is generally required to acquire a handgun from an unlicensed seller. Individuals must be 21 to obtain the certificate and, under federal law, must be 21 to obtain a handgun from a licensed dealer.[]
  100. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.01. This restriction does not apply to transfers of long guns from family members or “for a legitimate and lawful sporting purpose.”[]
  101. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204(1).[]
  102. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 202.310.[]
  103. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 202.300(1).[]
  104. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 202.300(1); 202.300(5).[]
  105. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 159:12. This section does not apply to: 1) parents, grandparents, guardians, administrators and executors giving a revolver to their children, wards, or heirs to an estate; 2) firearm safety instructors during a training program, with the parent or guardian’s permission; 3) licensed hunters accompanying a minor while lawfully hunting; and 4) individuals supervising minors using firearms during a lawful shooting event or activity.[]
  106. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:58-3.3c, 2C:58-6.1a, 2C:58-3c(4).[]
  107. N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:39-10e., 2C:58-6.1a, 2C:58-3c(4).[]
  108. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-6.1b.[]
  109. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-6.1b.[]
  110. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-2.2.[]
  111. N.Y. Penal Law § 400.00(1)(a), (12).[]
  112. N.Y. Penal Law § 400.00(1)(a).[]
  113. N.Y. Penal Law § 265.05. This law does not apply to the possession of a rifle or shotgun (or the appropriate ammunition) by the holder of a hunting license or permit used in accordance with state law.[]
  114. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-315.[]
  115. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.7.[]
  116. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-03-02. This section does not prohibit a person from lending or giving a handgun to a minor for use under the direct supervision of an adult and for the purposes of firearm safety training, target shooting, or hunting.[]
  117. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-01(1)(d). This prohibition does not apply if the minor is under the direct supervision of an adult and possesses the handgun for the purposes of firearm safety training, target shooting, or hunting.[]
  118. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2923.21(B).[]
  119. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2923.21(A).[]
  120. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, § 1273(A), (E).[]
  121. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, § 1273(A), (E).[]
  122. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, §§ 1273 (C), (E), 1283(D).[]
  123. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, §§ 1273 (C), (E), 1283(D).[]
  124. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.470(1)(a).[]
  125. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.470(1)(a).[]
  126. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.250(1)(c)(A).[]
  127. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.250(2)(a).[]
  128. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. §§ 6110.1(c), (d), 6302.[]
  129. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. §§ 6110.1(c), (d), 6302.[]
  130. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 6110.1(a). Pennsylvania’s possession prohibition refers to handguns and to rifles and shotguns of a specified length. It does not encompass all long guns.[]
  131. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 6110.1(a). Pennsylvania’s possession prohibition refers to handguns and to rifles and shotguns of a specified length. It does not encompass all long guns.[]
  132. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-35(a)(1), 11-47-37.[]
  133. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-30, 11-47-31.[]
  134. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-33.[]
  135. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-33.[]
  136. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-30(A)(3). This prohibition does not apply to the temporary loan of handguns for instructions under the immediate supervision of a parent or adult instructor. Id.[]
  137. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-30(B). This prohibition does not apply to the temporary loan of handguns for instructions under the immediate supervision of a parent or adult instructor. Id.[]
  138. S.D. Codified Laws § 23-7-44.[]
  139. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1320(a); Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1303(a)(1).[]
  140. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1303(a)(1).[]
  141. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1319(b). For a list of affirmative defenses a juvenile may raise when being prosecuted for knowingly possessing a handgun, see Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1319(d)(1). []
  142. Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 46.06(a)(2), (c).[]
  143. Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 46.06(a)(2), (c).[]
  144. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-509.9.[]
  145. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-509.9.[]
  146. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-509.4.[]
  147. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-509.[]
  148. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4020, enacted by 2017 VT S 55, Sec. 7.[]
  149. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4020, enacted by 2017 VT S 55, Sec. 7.[]
  150. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4008.[]
  151. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-309. See also Va. Code Ann. § 1-207 (defining “minor”).[]
  152. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.7.[]
  153. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.240.[]
  154. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.240.[]
  155. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.240.[]
  156. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.040(2)(a)(iii), 9.41.042.[]
  157. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.240, effective July 1, 2019.[]
  158. W. Va. Code §§ 61-7-2(9); 61-7-8.[]
  159. W. Va. Code §§ 61-7-2(9); 61-7-8.[]
  160. Wis. Stat. § 948.60(2)(b).[]
  161. Wis. Stat. § 948.60(2)(b).[]
  162. Wis. Stat. § 948.60(2)(a).[]
  163. Wis. Stat. § 948.60(2)(a).[]
  164. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-404(d)(i)(A). This applies only to firearms covered by Wyoming’s Firearms Freedom Act.[]
  165. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-404(d)(i)(B). This applies only to firearms covered by Wyoming’s Firearms Freedom Act.[]
  166. The District’s Chief of Police may issue a registration certificate to an applicant between the ages of 18 and 21 years old who is otherwise qualified if the application is accompanied by a notarized statement from the applicant’s parent or guardian stating that: 1) the applicant has the permission of his parent or guardian to own and use the firearm to be registered; and 2) the parent or guardian assumes civil liability for all damages resulting from the actions of such applicant in the use of the firearm to be registered. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(a)(1).  This type of registration certificate expires on the person’s 21st birthday. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.03(a)(1)(B).[]
  167. New York, N.Y., Charter §§ 462-464; Admin. Code § 10-303 et seq.[]