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Guns in schools are an unnecessary and significant threat to the safety of children and college students.

Schools should be a safe haven from the violence that touches so many Americans, yet many states lack proper legal protection against the presence of firearms in schools. Dangerous gaps in gun-free schools laws, like concealed carry exceptions, threaten the safety of children and increase the likelihood of tragic school shootings. Meanwhile, the gun lobby’s efforts to force colleges and universities to allow guns on campuses poses a threat to the safety of post-secondary students and educators.

Background

Guns have no place in our nation’s schools. The tragedies that took place at Sandy Hook,1 Columbine,2 Virginia Tech,3 and other schools across the US4 demonstrate the devastating effect guns have on our school communities. Calls to arm teachers or to allow college students to carry guns will only lead to more gun deaths and injuries, not fewer. By contrast, laws that prohibit guns in schools and impose harsh penalties for gun possession help keep students and educators safe. The presence of guns in higher education classrooms also burdens the First Amendment right to academic freedom of speech—guns can impede the candid discourse that is critical to the collegiate experience. Allowing guns on campus poses a grave threat to people employed by schools as well, making the workplace more dangerous for university staff and faculty.

Reducing Gun Violence at K–12 Schools

Shootings at K–12 schools shock us because schools are generally safe havens from the gun violence that is so prevalent elsewhere. A report issued by the US Departments of Education and Justice found that between 1992 and 2006, at least 50 times as many murders of young people ages 5–18 occurred away from school than at school.5 In addition, at least 140 times as many youth suicides were committed off school property than at school.6 During the 2010-11 school year, there was about one homicide or suicide of a school-age youth at school per 3.5 million enrolled students.7

Federal and state laws ensuring that schools are gun-free zones have helped make K–12 schools even safer, significantly reducing gun violence in these places. School-associated student homicide rates decreased after the federal laws restricting guns within 1,000 feet of schools were adopted in the early 1990s,8 and fewer students are carrying guns.9

Proposals offered by the gun lobby to arm teachers and repeal gun-free school zones laws are dangerous and counter-productive.10 There is no reason to believe such proposals will help curb those rare instances of gun violence at school. Teachers are not trained law enforcement officers—their purpose is to be educators and role models. Further, the gun lobby’s claim that “gun-free zones” invite mass shootings has been thoroughly debunked by research showing that the overwhelming majority—nearly 90%—of all high-fatality gun massacres since 1966 have occurred wholly or partly in locations where civilian guns were allowed or there was armed security or law enforcement present.11

Gun violence prevention measures for our schools should focus on educating kids and parents about the dangers of firearms and importance of safe storage, rather than on arming teachers. A study of 37 school shootings in 26 states found that in nearly two-thirds of the incidents, the attacker got the gun from his or her own home or that of a relative.12 For more information about the safe storage of firearms, see our summaries on Safe Storage and Child Access Prevention.

Protecting College Students from Gun Homicide and Suicide

America’s college and university campuses are also generally safe havens from gun violence.13 As described below, in most states, legislators or the governing bodies of higher education institutions have prohibited or significantly restricted gun possession on most or all areas of public college and university campuses.14 Moreover, as described in the summary on the Minimum Age to Purchase & Possess, students under age 21 may not carry handguns on campus in many states because they are prohibited from possessing handguns.

As a result of these laws, few students have access to guns on campus, ensuring that colleges and universities remain safe learning environments:

  • Less than 2% of college students report being threatened with a gun while at school.15
  • There were 11,920 total gun homicides in the US in 2003,16 but only 10 total murders or non-negligent homicides on college campuses.17
  • Violent crime for college students age 18–24 declined significantly between 1995 and 2002.18
  • Students living on college campuses are less likely to be victimized than when living off-campus—over 90% of victimizations occur off-campus.19

Allowing guns on campus would likely lead to more campus homicides and suicides. Young adults between the ages of 18–25 experience the highest rate of serious mental illness.20 Between 9% and 11% of college students seriously considered suicide in the previous school year,21 and about 1,100 college students commit suicide each year.22 When a gun enters this mix, a suicide attempt becomes considerably more lethal, as 85% of gun suicide attempts are fatal.23

Gun-owning college students also have a greater propensity for engaging in risky, sometimes violent, behavior. A 2002 study from the Journal of American College Health found that students who owned guns were more likely than non-gun-owning students to binge drink and then engage in risky activities “such as driving when under the influence of alcohol, vandalizing property, and having unprotected intercourse.”24

These facts belie any need for students, faculty, and visitors to carry guns on campus—for self-defense or any other reason.25 There is no credible statistical evidence to suggest that students carrying guns, particularly concealed handguns, will reduce violence on our college campuses. Instead, evidence suggests that permissive concealed gun carrying generally will increase crime and place students at risk.26 Guns on campus pose additional concerns as well, including greater likelihood of gun thefts,27 and increased liability and public relations costs for schools.28 Forcing guns onto America’s college campuses also inhibits the free exchange of ideas in the classroom by making students and faculty feel less safe to express controversial views.29

In seeking to force higher education institutions to allow guns on campus, the gun lobby has recently argued that college-aged women should be able to carry concealed firearms to defend themselves against sexual assault. This position ignores clear evidence that “campus carry” laws will not make women safer from sexual violence.30 To the contrary, after campus carry policies took effect in Utah and Colorado, crimes committed on or near college campuses in those states, including forcible rapes, increased (during a time period when the nationwide rate of sexual assaults decreased).31 As survivors of sexual assault and groups like the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence have observed, allowing guns on campus won’t make women safer, but will give women and other students more reason to fear potentially armed predators and rapists.32 And all students likewise would have good reason to fear that introducing guns onto college campuses will lead to more homicides, suicides, and gun accidents, decreasing campus safety overall.

Summary of Federal Law

No federal law restricts guns on college or university campuses. Two federal laws regulate the possession of firearms in or near K-12 schools:

1)   the Gun-Free Schools Act (which requires some K-12 schools to expel students found with guns).

2)   the Gun-Free School Zones Act (which deems K-12 schools to be “gun-free zones”). However, the federal law deeming K-12 schools to be gun-free zones has a dangerous loophole: it doesn’t apply to individuals licensed by a state to possess or carry a handgun.

Federal Law Prohibits Guns at K-12 Schools – With Dangerous Exceptions

The Gun-Free School Zones Act (GFSZA) prohibits any person from knowingly possessing a firearm that has moved in or otherwise affects interstate or foreign commerce at a place the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a school zone.33 The GFSZA defines “school zone” as:

  1. In, or on the grounds of, a public, parochial or private school that provides elementary or secondary education
  2. Within a distance of 1,000 feet from the grounds of a public, parochial or private school that provides elementary or secondary education34

However, the federal prohibition against possessing a gun in a school zone does not apply to people licensed by a state or locality to possess a gun.35 This exception covers many people licensed to possess firearms or to carry concealed firearms.36 In addition, the federal GFSZA allows firearm possession in school zones if:

  • The firearm is unloaded and “in a locked container, or a locked firearms rack that is on a motor vehicle,”37
  • The firearm is possessed for use in a program approved by a school, or in accordance with a contract entered into between a school and the individual or an employer of the individual.38

Federal Law Requires K-12 Schools to Expel Students for Gun Possession

The Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA) was enacted in 1994 as a response to increasing levels of gun violence in schools.39 Unlike the GFSZA, which applies to any person possessing a firearm in the defined prohibited areas, the GFSA focuses on student behavior, penalizing students to deter them from bringing firearms to school.40

The current GFSA, effective as of 2002, requires that states receiving certain federal funds require local educational agencies to expel students from school for a minimum period of one year if they bring a firearm to school or possess one at school.41 The GFSA also requires that, in order to receive federal funds, each local educational agency must:

  1. Refer any student who brings a firearm to a school served by the agency to the criminal justice or juvenile delinquency system42
  2. Annually provide an assurance that the local educational agency is in compliance with the state expulsion law43
  3. Annually provide a description of the circumstances surrounding any expulsions imposed under the state expulsion law44

The GFSA expressly permits firearm possession if the gun is lawfully stored inside a locked vehicle on school property, or if the gun is possessed for a school activity approved and authorized by the local educational agency (if appropriate safeguards have been adopted to ensure student safety).45 The GFSA also allows states to permit the chief administering officer of a local educational agency to modify an expulsion for a student, in writing, on a case-by-case basis.46 To date, the GFSA has not been challenged.

SUPPORT GUN SAFETY

We’re in this together. To build a safer America—one where children and parents in every neighborhood can learn, play, work, and worship without fear of gun violence—we need you standing beside us in this fight.

Executive Orders Responding to Shootings at K-12 Schools

In the aftermath of the Newtown shootings, in 2013, President Obama issued a series of executive orders focusing on firearms and ammunition regulation, mental health issues, and school shootings. A few of these orders deal directly with safety in K-12 schools:

  • The Departments of Justice and Homeland Security have been directed to provide continuing training and security assessments for law enforcement, first responders, and school officials on active shooter situations.47
  • The Departments of Education, Justice, Homeland Security, and Health and Human Services have developed model emergency management planning guides to help schools prepare for shootings.48

The Department of Justice (DOJ) has made Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Hiring Grants available to fund school resource officers.49 In September 2013, DOJ announced the awarding of 263 COPS Hiring Grants totaling approximately $125 million, including around $45 million to fund 356 new school resource officer positions.50

Summary of State Law

Guns in K–12 Schools

As described above, federal law prohibits guns on K–12 campuses generally but exempts people with concealed carry permits from the prohibition. Nearly all states prohibit concealed carry permit holders from carrying firearms in K–12 schools, however. Notwithstanding these prohibitions, even in states where carry by permittees is prohibited, many states allow schools to grant individualized permission to permit holders to carry. A little over a quarter of states allow individuals with concealed carry permits to carry loaded firearms in their vehicles despite the prohibition on guns on campus.

Guns in K-12 Schools: Parents and Members of the General Public
StateUnder state law, can members of the general public carry? (Federal law prohibits carry at schools by people without carry permits)51Under state law, can the school give people permission to carry (unrelated to educational programs)? 52
Under state law, are people with ccw permits allowed to keep loaded, unlocked guns in on-campus vehicles? 53
AlabamaNo (see footnote for details)54No55
No56
AlaskaNo57Yes 58
No59
ArizonaNo60No
No
ArkansasNo61Private and religious schools can give CCW permittees permission to carry on school grounds62
Yes63 
CaliforniaNo64No65
No66
ColoradoNo67No
Yes68
ConnecticutNo69Yes70
No
District of ColumbiaNo71No
No
DelawareYes, with a concealed carry permit72No
Yes73
FloridaNo74No
Yes, but schools can prohibit75
GeorgiaNo76Yes77
Yes78
HawaiiNo relevant statuteNo relevant statute
No relevant statute
IdahoNo79Yes80
Yes, when “delivering” students or school staff to school81
IllinoisNo82No (see footnote for details)83
Yes84
IndianaNo85, however CCW permittees can carry in houses of worship on school grounds unless the school specifically prohibits it86Yes87
Yes88
IowaNo89Yes90
No91
KansasYes, with a concealed carry permit92Yes93
Yes94
KentuckyNo95Yes96
Yes97
LouisianaNo98Yes99
Yes100
MaineNo101No102
No103
MarylandNo104No105
No106
MassachusettsNo107Yes108
No109
MichiganYes, can openly carry firearms with a concealed carry license 110Yes111
No112
MinnesotaNo113Yes114
Yes115
MississippiNo116No117
Yes118
MissouriNo119Yes120
Yes121
MontanaNo122Yes123
No124
NebraskaNo125No126
Yes127
NevadaNo128Yes129
No130
New HampshireYes (but federal law restricts carry on campus by people who do not have concealed carry permits)131N/A
Yes132
New JerseyNo133Yes134
No135
New MexicoNo for public schools136
No relevant law for non-public schools
No for public schools
No relevant law for non-public schools
Yes, for people 20 and older on public school grounds137
No relevant law for non-public schools
New YorkNo138No139
No140
North CarolinaNo141No142
No143
North DakotaNo144No145
Yes146
OhioNo147Yes148
Yes149
OklahomaNo150Yes, for private schools only151
Yes152
OregonYes, with a concealed carry license153Yes154
Yes155
PennsylvaniaNo (see footnote for more information)156No157
No158
Rhode IslandNo (see footnote for details) 159No160
No161
South CarolinaNo162Yes163
No, with minor exception for people with concealed weapons permits164
South DakotaNo, however this prohibition does not apply in private schools165
No166
No167
TennesseeNo168No for public schoolsYes for private schools169
Yes170
TexasNo171Yes172
No173
UtahYes, with a concealed carry permit174Yes175
Yes, if the vehicle is “under [a] person’s control”176
Vermont177No178Yes179
No180
VirginiaNo181No182
Yes183
WashingtonNo184No185
Yes186
West VirginiaNo187No for public schools
Yes for private schools188
Yes(W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a.))
WisconsinNo189No190
No191
WyomingNo relevant statuteNo relevant statute
No relevant statute

Other common exceptions include:

  • Federal law allows gun possession by a person without a concealed carry permit within a residence, place of business, or other private property that lies within a school zone but is not part of the school grounds or property
  • Guns possessed for hunting or safety courses, school-authorized sports, ceremonial, or recreation activities, or military or peace officer training
  • Guns possessed while hunting on school grounds or traversing school grounds to access hunting lands during hunting season
  • Carry of firearms in places of worship located on the grounds of private religious schools

Armed Security, Teachers, & Staff

Guns in K–12 schools make students, teachers, and staff less safe, but following school shootings, the gun lobby predictably calls for more guns in schools. In some states, school security who are not trained law enforcement are allowed to carry and approximately half of states allow teachers or other school employees with concealed carry permits to carry firearms on school grounds, with or without individualized permission. 


Guns in K–12 Schools: Security, Teachers, and Staff
StateDoes state law allow non-law enforcement school security to carry?192Does state law allow carry by teachers?
Does state law allow carry by other school employees?
AlabamaNo (see footnote for detail) 193No (see footnote for details)194
No (see footnote for details)195
AlaskaYes, with permission from the school196Yes, with permission from the school197
Yes, with permission from the school198
ArizonaMaybe, when used in a program approved by the school199Maybe, when used in a program approved by the school200
Maybe, when used in a program approved by the school201
ArkansasYes202Private and religious schools can grant CCW permittees permission to carry on school grounds203
Private and religious schools can grant CCW permittees permission to carry on school grounds204
CaliforniaYes205No206
No207
ColoradoYes208Yes, in certain circumstances209
Yes, in certain circumstances210
ConnecticutYes, with permission from the school211Yes, with permission from the school212
Yes, with permission from the school213
District of ColumbiaNo214No215
No216
DelawareYes, with a concealed carry permit217Yes 218
Yes 219
FloridaYes220Yes, as part of the school guardian program221
Yes, as part of the school guardian program222
GeorgiaYes223Yes, with permission from the school224
Yes, with permission from the school225
HawaiiNo relevant statuteNo relevant statute
No relevant statute
Idaho226Yes, with permission from the school district227Yes, with permission from the school district228
Yes, with permission from the school district229
IllinoisYes230No231
No232
Indiana233Yes, with permission from the school234Yes, with permission from the school235
Yes, with permission from the school236
Iowa237Yes238Yes, with permission from the school239
Yes, with permission from the school240
Kansas241Yes, with permission from the school242Yes, with permission from the school243
Yes, with permission from the school244
KentuckyYes, with permission from the school245Yes, with permission from the school246
Yes, with permission from the school247
LouisianaYes, in certain circumstances248No249
No250
MaineNo251No252
No253
MarylandYes254No255
No256
MassachusettsYes, with permission from the school257Yes, with permission from the school258
Yes, with permission from the school259
MichiganYes260Yes, with permission from the school261
Yes, with permission from the school262
MinnesotaYes, with permission from the school263Yes, with permission from the school264
Yes, with permission from the school265
MississippiYes266No267
No268
Missouri*Yes, if the person is a licensed “corporate security advisor”269Yes, with permission from the school or the district270
Yes, with permission from the school or the district271
MontanaYes, with permission from the school district272Yes, with permission from the school district273
Yes, with permission from the school district274
NebraskaNo275No276
No277
NevadaYes278Yes, with permission from the school279
Yes, with permission from the school280
New HampshireYes281Yes282
Yes283
New JerseyYes, with permission from the school284Yes, with permission from the school285
Yes, with permission from the school286
New MexicoYes287Generally, no288
Generally, no289
New YorkYes, if the security guard has a “special armed guard registration card”290No291
No292
North CarolinaNo293No294
No295
North DakotaYes296No297
No298
OhioYes299Yes, with permission from the school300
Yes, with permission from the school301
OklahomaYes, with permission from the board of education302Maybe (see footnote for detail)303
Maybe (see footnote for detail)304
OregonYes, with a concealed carry license305Yes, with a concealed carry license306
Yes, with a concealed carry license307
PennsylvaniaMaybe308Maybe309
Maybe310
Rhode IslandNo (see footnote for details) 311No (see footnote for details) 312
No (see footnote for details) 313
South CarolinaYes, with permission from the school314Yes, with permission from the school315
Yes, with permission from the school316
South DakotaYes, if the person is a school sentinel 317Yes, if the person is a school sentinel 318
Yes, if the person is a school sentinel 319
TennesseeYes320No in most public schools321
Yes, with permission from the school for private schools322
No in most public schools323
Yes, with permission from the school for private schools324
TexasYes, if the person is a designated school marshal325No, but state law allows schools to designate teachers as school marshals, who can keep a firearm in a safe within their immediate reach326
Yes, if the person is a designated school marshal327
UtahYes, with a concealed carry permit328Yes, with a concealed carry permit329
Yes, with a concealed carry permit330
VermontYes, with permission from the school331Yes, with permission from the school332
Yes, with permission from the school333
VirginiaNo, at public schools334
Yes, at private religious schools, with authorization from the school335
No336
No337
WashingtonNo, unless the security officer completes training that is equivalent to the training received by commissioned law enforcement officers338No339
No340
West VirginiaNo341No342
No343
WisconsinNo344No345
No346
WyomingYes, with permission from the school district347Yes, with permission from the school district348
Yes, with permission from the school district349

Almost All States Expel Students for Gun Possession

Forty-nine states and the District of Columbia require that any student possessing a firearm at an elementary or secondary school or on school property be expelled for not less than one year.350 Consistent with the federal Gun-Free Schools Act, these states commonly grant authority to the school to modify the expulsion of a particular student on a case-by-case basis. Most states authorize school districts to provide educational services to an expelled student in an alternative setting. Only Massachusetts does not require the expulsion of a student for possessing a gun at school.351

State Laws on Guns at College and University Campuses

The following table provides an overview of state laws regarding the carrying of firearms on college and university campuses. The strongest laws prohibit the possession of firearms on all post-secondary school campuses, while weaker laws prohibit firearms on campuses in some, but not all, circumstances.

Student safety is in greatest jeopardy in states that explicitly prevent publicly run colleges and universities from restricting or otherwise regulating the possession or carrying of firearms on their campuses. 

Unless a state has a law or regulation explicitly prohibiting the carrying or possession of firearms on all post-secondary school property, private colleges and universities generally have broad authority to allow, prohibit, or regulate the possession or carrying of firearms on their property.

In states with no specific laws or regulations regarding firearms on campuses, we have listed the firearms policy of the most populous school in the state. 


Guns on Campuses of Higher Education
StateDoes state law allow firearms on campus?Where can guns be carried or possessed on campus?
AlabamaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Alabama has a policy prohibiting firearms on campus in most situations.352
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Alabama has a policy prohibiting firearms on campus in most situations.353
AlaskaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The board of regents of the University of Alaska has adopted a policy limiting the possession of firearms on campus in most situations, unless the president of a university adopts regulations that provide exceptions.354
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The board of regents of the University of Alaska has adopted a policy limiting the possession of firearms on campus in most situations, unless the president of a university adopts regulations that provide exceptions.355
ArizonaNo relevant statute. 
State administrative code prohibits the ‘unauthorized’ use, possession, or storage of any weapon on a public university campus.356
No relevant statute.
State administrative code prohibits the ‘unauthorized’ use, possession, or storage of any weapon on a public university campus.357
Arkansas* Firearms are allowed in public schools, if the person carrying has a concealed carry endorsement358“In the buildings and on the grounds,” but not in dormitories or residence halls359
CaliforniaFirearms are not allowed on campus except with written permission from the school360N/A
Colorado*Firearms are allowed at public schools, with a concealed carry permit361State law does not place any specific restrictions on where concealed carry permittees can carry on campus.
A person can carry a firearm on campus in a private vehicle “for lawful protection…while travelling”362
ConnecticutNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Connecticut prohibits the possession of firearms on all of its campuses363
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Connecticut prohibits the possession of firearms on all of its campuses364
DelawareNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
Every school must have written rules regarding the possession of firearms on campus.365 The University of Delaware prohibits the use and possession of firearms on campus without prior authorization. 366
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Delaware prohibits the use and possession of firearms on campus without prior authorization. 367
District of ColumbiaPeople with concealed carry licenses are prohibited from carrying handguns at colleges and universities368People with concealed carry licenses are prohibited from carrying handguns at colleges and universities369
FloridaWith minor exceptions for guns in vehicles, firearms are not allowed on campuses.370Firearms are generally not allowed anywhere on campuses, except for CCW permittees in vehicles371
Georgia*Firearms are allowed at public schools with a concealed carry permit, or with permission from the school372“In any building or on real property owned by or leased to any… public institution of postsecondary education.” 
However, CCW permittees cannot carry in certain specified buildings, including those used for athletic events or student housing.373
HawaiiNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
IdahoFirearms are allowed at public schools with a concealed carry permit.374Concealed carry is allowed everywhere on public school campuses, except for within a dormitory or residence hall, or within a public entertainment facility with proper signage declaring the firearm restriction.375
IllinoisGenerally, no firearms are allowed on college and university campuses376FOID card holders can transport firearms in vehicles if the firearm is in a non-functioning state, or unloaded and enclosed.377
IndianaNo relevant statute.378 Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
Indiana University has a policy generally prohibiting the possession of firearms on university property.379
No relevant statute.380 Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
Indiana University has a policy generally prohibiting the possession of firearms on university property.381
IowaNo relevant statute. However, a state regulation generally prohibits the possession of firearms on public school campuses.382 N/A
Kansas*Concealed carry is allowed on public university campuses.383Firearms are allowed in any “any public area of any state or municipal building” unless the building has “adequate security measures” to prevent the carrying of weapons into the building.384
KentuckyKentucky law allows colleges and Universities to regulate the possession of deadly weapons on their property.385
The University of Kentucky generally prohibits the possession of deadly weapons on university property, except for in vehicles.386
Kentucky law allows colleges and Universities to regulate the possession of deadly weapons on their property.387
The University of Kentucky generally prohibits the possession of deadly weapons on university property, except for in vehicles.388
LouisianaWith some exceptions, firearms are prohibited on college and university campuses.389With some exceptions, firearms are prohibited on college and university campuses.390
MaineMaine law allows colleges and Universities to regulate the possession of deadly weapons on their property.391
The University of Maine generally prohibits wearing, displaying, using, or possessing weapons on campus.392
Maine law allows colleges and Universities to regulate the possession of deadly weapons on their property.393
The University of Maine generally prohibits wearing, displaying, using, or possessing weapons on campus.394
MarylandNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Maryland prohibits the unauthorized use, possession, or storage of weapons by students.395
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Maryland prohibits the unauthorized use, possession, or storage of weapons by students.396
MassachusettsFirearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses.397Firearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses.398
MichiganSchools have the authority to regulate firearms on campus. 
The University of Michigan prohibits the possession of firearms on campus.399
Even at schools that allow firearms on campus, concealed carry permittees cannot carry firearms in dormitories or classrooms.400
MinnesotaSchools are expressly authorized to regulate the possession of firearms on campus by students and employees, with some limitations401
The University of Minnesota generally prohibits the possession of firearms on campus, except for lawful storage within a vehicle.402
Schools have the authority to regulate the possession of firearms on campus by students and employees, but schools may not prohibit lawful possession of firearms in a parking facility or parking area.403
Mississippi*Firearms are allowed on public college and university campuses with an enhanced concealed carry permit.404.)People with enhanced concealed carry permits are generally authorized to carry in public areas on campus, although public  universities may by administrative rule limit students and employees from possessing firearms.405  
Private schools are free to prohibit firearms on campus if they choose to.406
MissouriWith minor exceptions, Missouri generally prohibits the possession of firearms on college and university campuses.407Missouri allows firearms to be possessed within vehicles on campuses.408
MontanaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Montana generally prohibits carrying firearms on campus, and places restrictions on storage and possession of firearms on campus.409
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
NebraskaWith limited exceptions, Firearms are generally prohibited on college and university property.410People with concealed handgun permits can possess firearms in vehicles on campus.411
NevadaNevada generally prohibits the possession of firearms on the Nevada System of Higher Education.412N/A
New HampshireNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of New Hampshire generally prohibits the possession of firearms on its ‘core campuses’.413
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
New JerseyNew Jersey generally prohibits the possession of firearms on the campus of a college or university.414N/A
New MexicoWith minor exceptions, firearm carrying is prohibited on university premises.415Persons over the age of 19 may carry firearms in private vehicles “for lawful protection of the person’s or another’s person or property” on campuses.416
New YorkWith minor exceptions, firearm carrying is prohibited on college or university premises.417N/A
North CarolinaWIth limited exceptions, firearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses.418People with concealed handgun permits can possess firearms in vehicles on campus.419
North DakotaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses, except in private vehicles.420
The University of North Dakota prohibits firearms in UND buildings and at ‘public gatherings’ on campus.421 
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses, except in private vehicles.422
The University of North Dakota prohibits firearms in UND buildings and at ‘public gatherings’ on campus.423
OhioWith some exceptions, concealed carry is generally prohibited on college and university campuses (However, schools can adopt policies which authorize certain individuals or classes of individuals to carry on campus.)424People with concealed handgun permits can possess firearms in vehicles on campus.425
OklahomaWith certain exceptions, firearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses.426People with concealed handgun permits can possess firearms in vehicles on campus.427
Schools can choose to designate certain areas on campus as allowing concealed carry.428
Oregon*People with concealed carry permits can carry in open areas on public school campuses. However, schools may be able to enact internal policies prohibiting concealed carry inside classrooms, dorms, and other buildings. 429
People with concealed carry permits can carry in open areas on public school campuses. However, schools may be able to enact internal policies prohibiting concealed carry inside classrooms, dorms, and other buildings.430
By internal policy, the Oregon State Board of Higher Education prohibits the possession of firearms in classrooms, buildings, dormitories, and sporting and entertainment events by students, employees, vendors, ticketholders, and those who reserve, lease, or use Board property.431
PennsylvaniaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
Pennsylvania State University generally prohibits firearms on all University property.432
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
Pennsylvania State University generally prohibits firearms on all University property.433
Rhode IslandNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Rhode Island prohibits students from possessing firearms on campus.434
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
The University of Rhode Island prohibits students from possessing firearms on campus.435
South CarolinaFirearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses.436State law does not prohibit CCW permit holders from possessing firearms in closed containers within motor vehicles on campus.437
South DakotaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
With limited exceptions, the University of South Dakota prohibits the possession of firearms on campus.438
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
At the University of South Dakota allows the storage of firearms out of view in locked vehicles on campus. The school also allows students and guests to store firearms at the University Police Department storage facility.439
Tennessee*Firearms are generally prohibited on college and university campuses. However, any public school employee with an enhanced handgun carry permit can carry a concealed handgun on campus.440Tennessee allows non-students to possess firearms in vehicles on campus.441
Certain location restrictions apply to school employees with enhanced carry permits who choose to carry on campus. They cannot carry in stadiums, gymnasiums and auditoriums; in meetings regarding disciplinary matters or tenure issues; or in hospitals or offices where medical or mental health services are provided.442
Texas*Public schools cannot generally prohibit people with concealed handgun licenses from carrying on campus. They are, however, authorized to establish reasonable rules and regulations regarding concealed carry on campus.443
Private schools may adopt policies prohibiting carry on campus, but only after consulting with students, staff, and faculty. However, if they do not adopt a policy prohibiting campus carry, then it is allowed by default.444
Public schools cannot generally prohibit carry by people with concealed handgun license holders.445
Utah*Public schools cannot generally prohibit carry by people who are licensed to carry a concealed firearm.446Public schools can designate one secure area as a hearing room, where firearms can be excluded.447
VermontSchools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses. (See footnote for more detail)448
The University of Vermont generally prohibits the possession of weapons on campus.449
Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses. 
The University of Vermont generally prohibits the possession of weapons on campus.450
VirginiaPublic schools may not prohibit carry by members of the general public in open areas on campus. However, public colleges and universities may still restrict concealed carry by students and employees and in certain areas.451Firearms are generally allowed on public school campuses by law, but schools can restrict carry in areas where people congregate, like buildings or events. 452)
WashingtonNo relevant statute. However, the  Board of Regents of the University of Washington has adopted an administrative rule banning possession of firearms on campus.453No relevant statute. 
West VirginiaNo relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
West Virginia University prohibits the possession or storage of deadly weapons on campus. 454
No relevant statute. Schools are free to regulate firearms on their campuses.
West Virginia University prohibits the possession or storage of deadly weapons on campus. 455
Wisconsin*Public schools may not prohibit firearms in open areas. They can, however, prohibit CCW inside buildings if notice is posted.456On public college and university campuses, firearms are allowed in open areas and in buildings without posted notices prohibiting firearms.457
WyomingWyoming generally prohibits concealed carry at college athletic events and in college or university facilities.458
Wyoming allows open and concealed carry on campus as long as it’s not at an athletic event or in a university facility.459

States with an * prohibit at least some schools from regulating campus carry.

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States with “Campus Carry” Policies that Force Guns onto Campus

The gun lobby continually pushes state legislators to adopt dangerous laws or policies requiring higher education institutions to allow the carry of concealed firearms on campus. A number of states have passed “Campus Carry” laws mandating that concealed firearms be permitted on some or all areas of college and university campuses, while in other states, judicial decisions interpreting state concealed carry laws have had the same effect. In all but one of these states, laws or court decisions allowing guns on campus have targeted public colleges and universities, reserving to private colleges and universities the authority to set their own rules for firearms on their property.460

Arkansas

In 2017, Arkansas enacted a law greatly expanding the places where individuals with handgun-carry permits can carry concealed firearms if they complete just eight hours of additional training to obtain an enhanced permit. The new law allows individuals with enhanced permits to carry loaded, concealed firearms “in the buildings and on the grounds of a public university, public college, or community college.”461 Under the law, private colleges and universities may adopt a policy disallowing concealed handguns in buildings and on campus grounds if they post required signs.462

Georgia

In 2017, Georgia passed a law allowing concealed carry license-holders to carry concealed firearms while “in any building or on real property owned by or leased to any public technical school, vocational school, college, or university, or other public institution of postsecondary education.”463 There are certain exceptions to the law, mainly that it does not authorize carrying concealed firearms in student housing, fraternities or sororities, buildings using for athletic events, or faculty offices. Also exempt are spaces used for preschool, childcare, or classes where high school students are enrolled.

Idaho

In 2014, Idaho enacted a law removing the authority of the governing bodies of higher education institutions to regulate or prohibit the possession or carrying of firearms in classrooms and open areas of campus by individuals licensed to carry a concealed handgun. Concealed guns still may not be carried into student dormitories or residence halls, or into a building of a public entertainment facility that has posted the proper sign prohibiting firearms.464

Kansas

In 2013, Kansas enacted a law requiring public colleges and universities to allow concealed firearms on campus, unless the campus posts “armed personnel at public entrances” and installs “electronic equipment” such as metal detectors, and such security measures are sufficient to ensure that no weapons are brought into campus buildings.465 The law goes into effect in July 2017. In response to the law, the Kansas Board of Regents, with authority over Kansas public universities, adopted a new weapons policy that allows concealed carry starting in July 2017.466

Mississippi

State law allows a person who has taken a voluntary course on the safe handling and use of firearms by a certified instructor to obtain an enhanced concealed carry permit, which authorizes them to carry a concealed weapon on the campuses of public and private colleges and universities in Mississippi.467 Applicants must be over age 21 and must pass a background check for the enhanced permit.

Tennessee

In 2016, Tennessee enacted a law allowing full-time faculty, staff, and other employees of public colleges and universities who have handgun-carry permits to carry concealed guns on campus, as long as they first notify the local law enforcement agency with responsibility for campus security, such as campus police.468 The University of Tennessee estimated that about 27,000 full-time employees are now eligible to carry guns.469

Texas

In 2015, Texas enacted a law allowing licensed individuals to carry concealed handguns on the campuses of public colleges and universities.470 The law authorizes public colleges and universities to establish reasonable rules regarding the carrying of concealed handguns, as long as those rules do not generally prohibit license holders from carrying concealed handguns. Private colleges and universities remain free to regulate or prohibit concealed carry after consulting with their students, staff, and faculty.471

Utah

The Utah State Legislature assumed jurisdiction of the state’s public universities in 2004. Universities now must permit the lawful possession or carrying of concealed firearms in most areas of their campuses, except in one area designated as a secure “hearing room.”472

Virginia

Colleges and universities may prohibit gun possession by the general public in the most vulnerable areas of campus (e.g., academic buildings, administrative offices, student residences, dining facilities, or places where sporting, entertainment or educational events are held).473 Colleges and universities may also regulate gun possession by students and employees.474 However, according to an opinion by the state Attorney General, public colleges and universities in Virginia must allow concealed carry permit holders who are members of the general public to possess guns on the open grounds of campus.475

Wisconsin

Colleges and universities must generally allow concealed carry permit holders to carry on campus grounds. Schools may, however, prohibit any person, including a concealed weapons permit holder, from entering or remaining in any privately or publicly owned building on the grounds of a university or college, if the university or college has notified the person that he or she may not enter or remain in the building while carrying a firearm.476

Key Legislative Elements

The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.

  • Establish a gun-free school zone that prohibits the possession or carrying, whether openly or concealed, of any firearm within an elementary or secondary school building, on school property, or within a set distance of school property (District of Columbia).
  • Prohibit the possession or carrying, whether openly or concealed, of any firearm within a school bus or other school-provided transportation.
  • Prohibit concealed weapons permit holders from possessing in school buildings, on school property, or within a set distance from school property.
  • Prohibit the possession or carrying, whether open or concealed, of any firearm on public and private college or university campuses, including in campus open areas, in parking lots and vehicles on campus, in buildings and residences, and at sporting events.

  1. On December 14, 2012, a lone gunman killed 20 children and six adults at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut before committing suicide.[]
  2. On April 20, 1999, two student gunmen killed 12 students and a teacher at a high school near Denver, Colorado before committing suicide.[]
  3. On April 16, 2007, a lone student gunman killed 32 people, mostly students, at Virginia Tech before committing suicide.[]
  4. Between December 15, 2012 and February 10, 2014, there were at least 44 school shootings in the US – including assault, suicides, and unintentional shootings. Moms Demand Action and Mayors Against Illegal Guns, Analysis of School Shootings, Dec. 15, 2012 – Feb. 10, 2014 (Feb. 12, 2014), http://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/images/SchoolShootingsReport.pdf.[]
  5. US Department of Education & US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008 (Apr. 2009): 6, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009022REV.pdf. Only approximately 1% of all homicides among school-age children happen on school grounds, during school events, or on the way to and from school. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, School-Associated Student Homicides–United States, 1992-2006 (Jan. 18, 2008), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5702a1.htm. The same study found that from July 1999 to June 2006, 116 students were killed in 109 separate incidents—an average of 16.5 student homicides each year (an average annual homicide rate of 0.03 per 100,000 students); 65% of those homicides were inflicted by firearms. See also Mark Anderson et al., “School-Associated Violent Deaths in the United States, 1994-1999,” 286 JAMA (Dec. 5, 2001): 2695, 2697-2699, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Security/citizensecurity/eeuu/documents/school-deaths.pdf.[]
  6. US Department of Education & US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2008 (Apr. 2009), 6, https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009022REV_1.pdf.[]
  7. US Department of Education & US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012 (June 2013), 6,  https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2013/2013036.pdf.[]
  8. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, School-Associated Student Homicides–United States, 1992-2006 (Jan. 18, 2008), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5702a1.htm. The rates decreased from 0.07 per 100,000 students to 0.03 per 100,000 students. Id.[]
  9. Between 1993 and 1999, the percentage of students who carried a gun, regardless of location, decreased from 8% to 5%. This lower percentage did not change significantly over the years 1999–2007. Danice K. Eaton et al., “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 2007,” Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (June 6, 2008), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5704a1.htm (surveying students in grades 9 – 12 about their behaviors throughout 2007).[]
  10. See Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, No Gun Left Behind: The Gun Lobby’s Campaign to Push Guns Into Colleges and Schools (May 2007), 9-11, 34, https://www.bradycampaign.org/sites/default/files/no-gun-left-behind.pdf. The gun lobby continues to push arming teachers and faculty in elementary and high schools, and seeks to repeal the federal Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1996 that prohibits firearms within 1,000 feet of elementary and high schools. After Newtown, the NRA’s refrain—arm teachers and faculty or have armed guards in every school—was rightly ridiculed. See, e.g., Alec MacGillis, “The NRA’s Emperor Has No Clothes,” New Republic, Dec. 21, 2012, http://www.newrepublic.com/blog/plank/111384/the-nras-emperor-no-clothes-moment; David Weigel, “Wayne LaPierre Wants Armed Guards at Schools. Columbine Had an Armed Guard,” Slate, Dec. 21, 2012, http://www.slate.com/blogs/weigel/2012/12/21/wayne_lapierre_wants_armed_guards_at_schools_columbine_had_an_armed_guard.html; and Jason Linkins, “NRA Leader Wayne LaPierre’s Much-Criticized Sandy Hook Speech Was Actually Quite Effective,” The Huffington Post, Dec. 21, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/21/nra-wayne-lapierre_n_2348277.html.[]
  11. Daniel W. Webster et al., Firearms on College Campuses: Research Evidence and Policy Implications (Oct. 15, 2016), 10-11, http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-gun-policy-and-research/_pdfs/GunsOnCampus.pdf. The paper’s authors also note that “when rampage shootings do occur, very rarely are they stopped by gun-wielding civilians.” Id. at 24.[]
  12. United States Secret Service, US Department of the Treasury, Safe School Initiative: An Interim Report on the Prevention of Targeted Violence in Schools (Oct. 2000), 6, https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447392.pdf. See also Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Source of Firearms Used by Students in School-Associated Violent Deaths — United States, 1992—1999 (Mar. 7, 2003), http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5209a1.htm.[]
  13. See Katrina Baum & Patsy Klaus, Office of Justice Programs, US Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, National Crime Victimization Survey – Violent Victimization of College Students, 1995-2002 (Jan. 2005), https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/vvcs02.pdf.[]
  14. Private colleges are free to regulate their campuses for public safety purposes in conformity with state law. See Thomas L. Harnisch, American Association of State Colleges & Universities, Concealed Weapons on State College Campuses: In Pursuit of Individual Liberty and Collective Security (Nov. 2008), 2, http://www.aascu.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=4545.[]
  15. Matthew Miller, David Hemenway & Henry Wechsler, “Guns and Gun Threats at College,” 51 J. Am. Coll. Health (Sept. 2002): 57, 63, http://archive.sph.harvard.edu/cas/Documents/Gunthreats2/gunspdf.pdf (focusing on gun ownership and gun threats on college or university campuses, regardless of whether those schools allowed firearms on campus).[]
  16. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) Injury Mortality Reports, 1999-2007,” National Center for Injury Prevention & Control, US Centers for Disease  Control & Prevention, accessed January 4, 2019,http://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/mortrate10_sy.html.[]
  17. US Dep’t of  Education, Summary Campus Crime and Security Statistics – Criminal Offenses, Murder/Non-negligent Manslaughter (2003), http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/crime/criminaloffenses/edlite-murder.html.[]
  18. Baum & Klaus, supra note 12, at 1. College students are less likely than non-students to be victims of crime: though crime rates declined for both students and non-students alike, by 2002 only 41 of every 1,000 students were victims of violent crime, while 56 out of 1,000 non-students were victimized that year. Id.[]
  19. Id. at 5.[]
  20. US Dep’t of Health & Human Services, Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings (2003), Chap. 9, Sec. 9.1, https://www.datafiles.samhsa.gov/study/national-survey-drug-use-and-health-nsduh-2002-nid13623.[]
  21. “Data Highlights: Seriously Considered Suicide,”American College Health Ass’n, National College Health Assessment, Archived March 10, 2018, https://web.archive.org/web/20180310004934/http://www.achancha.org/data/PHYSMENTAL_3_all.html (providing data from Spring 2000—Spring 2006). See also Jameson K. Hirsch, Jon R. Webb & Elizabeth L. Jeglic, “Forgiveness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior Among a Diverse Sample of College Students,” 67 J. Clinical Psych. (2011): 1, http://faculty.etsu.edu/hirsch/forgive_dep_suicide.pdf (noting that about 6.4% to 9.5% of college students seriously consider suicide).[]
  22. American Psychiatric Association, College Mental Health & Confidentiality (June 2009), 1, https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Directories/Library-and-Archive/resource_documents/resource-2016-college-mental-health-and-confidentiality.pdf.[]
  23. Sara B. Vyrostek, Joseph L. Annest, George W. Ryan, “Surveillance for Fatal and Nonfatal Injuries – United States, 2001,” Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (Sept. 3, 2004), https://www.cdc.gov/MMWr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5307a1.htm.[]
  24. Matthew Miller, supra note 14, at 59. The study found that nearly two-thirds of gun-owning students were binge drinkers.[]
  25. For additional information that explains why allowing concealed handguns on campus is a poor choice for self-defense, see the International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators, Inc. (IACLEA), IACLEA Position Statement – Concealed Carrying of Firearms Proposals on College Campuses (Aug. 12, 2008) (co-written by the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence), https://www.okhighered.org/campus-safety/resources/CBP-guns-iaclea-statement.pdf.[]
  26. See, e.g., Ian Ayres & John J. Donohue III, “Shooting Down the ‘More Guns, Less Crime’ Hypothesis,” 55 Stan. L. Rev. (Apr. 2003): 1193, 1285, 1296; and Ian Ayres & John J. Donohue III, “The Latest Misfires in Support of the ‘More Guns, Less Crime’ Hypothesis,” 55 Stan. L. Rev. (Apr. 2003): 1371, 1397.[]
  27. Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, supra note 9, at 8-9. See also Americans for Gun Safety, Stolen Firearms: Arming the Enemy (Dec. 2002), 1. Once a gun is stolen it is much more likely to be used in subsequent crime.[]
  28. Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, supra note 9, at 6, 11-13.[]
  29. Id. at 15-17. For additional information on the dangers of allowing guns on campus, see the Students for Gun Free Schools fact sheets, Why Our Campuses are Safer Without Concealed Handguns,  http://dev.keepgunsoffcampus.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/SGFSWhyOurCampuses-Electronic.pdf; and How We Can Prevent Future Tragedieshttp://www.studentsforgunfreeschools.org/HowWeCanPrevent-Electronic.pdf.[]
  30. See David Hemenway & Sara J. Solnick, Epidemiology of Self-Defense Gun Use: Evidence from the National Crime Victimization Surveys 2007–2011 (2015). Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey shows that women almost never successfully fend off a would-be rapist with a firearm—not once in over 300 cases reported between 2007 and 2011 was a firearm used to stop an attempted rape. Id. Moreover, researchers have found that in the vast majority of campus sexual assaults (89%), predators target intoxicated classmates or use drugs and alcohol to incapacitate their victims; it is unlikely an incapacitated or highly intoxicated student could use a gun for self-defense in these situations. C.P. Krebs et al., “College Women’s Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Before and Since Entering College,” J. of Am. College Health (2009): 57(6), 639-649.[]
  31. Evan Defilippis & Devin Hughes, “The Numbers on Arming College Students Show Risks Outweigh Benefits,” The Trace, Nov. 9, 2015, https://www.thetrace.org/2015/11/campus-carry-self-defense-accidental-shootings-research/.[]
  32. See, e.g., National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, Concealed Firearms on Campuses Will Not Prevent Sexual Assault (Mar. 2015), http://www.ncadv.org/files/Guns%20and%20Campus%20SA%20(2).pdf; Know Your IX, Petition to Colorado State House et. al., “Don’t Vote to Allow Guns on College Campuses,” Change.org (2015), http://chn.ge/1TL6aAC.[]
  33. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(A). The GFSZA originally was enacted as part of the Crime Control Act of 1990. The GFSZA was eventually challenged as an unconstitutional exercise of congressional authority under the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution. In United States v. Lopez, the Supreme Court struck down the law on the grounds that the Act regulated neither commercial nor interstate activity. 514 US 549 (1995). Following the ruling in Lopez, Congress re-enacted the GFSZA in 1996, correcting the defects identified by the Supreme Court. The amended GFSZA contained the same prohibitions as the 1996 revision, except the newer version added language to apply the law to any firearm “that has moved in or that otherwise affects interstate or foreign commerce.” 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(A), (3)(A). Challenges to the new statute have been unsuccessful. See, e.g., United States v. Danks, 221 F.3d 1037, 1038-39 (8th Cir. 1999) and United States v. Dorsey, 418 F.3d 1038, 1045-46 (9th Cir. 2005), rev’d on other grounds.[]
  34. 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(25)-(26).[]
  35. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(B)(ii).[]
  36. See our summaries on Licensing Gun Owners or  Purchasers and Carrying Concealed Weapons for more information about these licensing requirements.[]
  37. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(B)(iii).[]
  38. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(B)(iv), (v); § 922(q)(3)(B)(ii), (iii).[]
  39. Avarita L. Hanson, “Have Zero Tolerance School Discipline Policies Turned into a Nightmare? The American Dream’s Promise of Equal Educational Opportunity Grounded in Brown v. Board of Education,” 9 U.C. Davis J. Juv. L. & Pol’y (Summer 2005): 289, 303, (discussing the history of the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1990 and subsequent Acts).[]
  40. Id. at 303-04.[]
  41. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(b)(1); see also 20 U.S.C. § 7151(h)(1) (defining “school” as “any setting that is under the control and supervision of the local educational agency for the purpose of student activities approved and authorized by the local educational agency”).[]
  42. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(h)(1). In this provision, “school” is defined more narrowly to mean “a school that provides elementary or secondary education” pursuant the laws of the state. 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(26).[]
  43. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(d), (e).[]
  44. Id.[]
  45. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(g).[]
  46. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(b)(1). A state may also allow a local educational agency that has expelled a student from the student’s regular school setting to provide an alternative educational setting. 20 U.S.C. § 7151(b)(2).[]
  47. The White House, Progress Report on the President’s Executive Actions to Reduce Gun Violence (June 18, 2013), 4, https://www.apha.org/-/media/files/pdf/topics/gun/gunviolenceprogressrpt.ashx.[]
  48. Id. at 6.[]
  49. Id. DOJ has also encouraged police departments to hire such officers by providing a preference for grant applications that support school resource officers. Id.[]
  50. US Department of Justice, Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Office, Department  of Justice Awards Hiring Grants for Law Enforcement and School Safety, Press Release, Sept. 27, 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20180605183054/https://cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=2695.[]
  51. Many states also provide exceptions to this general prohibition for retired law enforcement, members of the military, and other government employees who carry firearms for work.[]
  52. Many states allow firearms in K-12 schools as part of school programs such as hunter safety courses. This column refers to exceptions unrelated to school programs or education.[]
  53. Federal law allows firearms in vehicles in school zones if they are unloaded and in a locked container or locked gun rack. People with concealed carry permits are exempt from this requirement, however.[]
  54. Alabama law prohibits carrying firearms “knowingly with intent to do bodily harm” in K-12 schools but people with pistol permits are exempt from this prohibition. Ala. Code §§ 13A-11-72(c); 13A-11-72(e); 13A-11-75. However, a 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf.[]
  55. A 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf.[]
  56. Though Ala. Code §§ 13A-11-72(e) and 13A-11-75 seem to allow possession of firearms in vehicles on campus, a 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf.[]
  57. Alaska Stat. §§ 11.61.210(a)(7), (a)(8); 18.65.755(a)(2).[]
  58. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.210(a)(7).[]
  59. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.210(a)(7)(A).[]
  60. Current and retired law enforcement officers can carry with a concealed carry permit. Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13-3102(I)(3).[]
  61. Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-119(b)(1); 5-73-306(13)(A).[]
  62. Ark. Code Ann.  § 5-73-119(e)(11).[]
  63. Ark. Code Ann.  § 5-73-119(12).[]
  64. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(b).[]
  65. Cal. Penal Code §§ 626.9(b), (c).[]
  66. Id.[]
  67. Colo. Rev Stat §§ 18-12-105.5; 18-12-214(3).[]
  68. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.5(3)(c).[]
  69. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-217b(a).[]
  70. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-217b(b).[]
  71. DC Code Ann. § 22-4502.01(a).[]
  72. Note that there does not appear to be a restriction on openly carrying a firearm in a Safe School and Recreation Zone for adults. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1457(a)-(c).[]
  73. Note that there does not appear to be a restriction on openly carrying a firearm in a Safe School and Recreation Zone for adults. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1457(a)-(c).[]
  74. Fla. Stat. §§ 790.115(1)-(2)(a), (c); 810.095; 790.06.(12)(a)(9),(10).[]
  75. Fla. Stat. § 790.115(2); Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.25(5).[]
  76. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1.[]
  77. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1(6).[]
  78. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1(c)(7), (8).[]
  79. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(1), (2)(e).[]
  80. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(4)(g).[]
  81. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(4)(e), (f).[]
  82. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(4), (a)(9), (a)(10), (c)(1), (c)(1.5), (c)(4); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(1).[]
  83. Illinois law provides an exception to the prohibition on carry to students and security, but not to the general public. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 5/24-1(c)(3).[]
  84. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(4), (c)(1.5).[]
  85. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-9-2.[]
  86. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-9-1(6).[]
  87. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-9-1.[]
  88. Ind. Code Ann. §§ 35-47-9-1; 35-47-9-2.[]
  89. Iowa Code §§ 280.2; 724.4B(1).[]
  90. Iowa Code § 724.4B(2).[]
  91. Iowa Code § 724.4B(2).[]
  92. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(5).[]
  93. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(2).[]
  94. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(2).[]
  95. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.070(1).[]
  96. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 527.070(3)(f); 237.110(16)(f).[]
  97. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.070(3)(a).[]
  98. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 14:95.2(A); 40:1379.3(N)(11).[]
  99. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 14:95.2(A),(C)(3).[]
  100. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 14:95.2(A),(C)(5).[]
  101. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  102. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  103. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  104. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102.[]
  105. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102.[]
  106. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102.[]
  107. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  108. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  109. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  110. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a(5)(c).[]
  111. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a(5)(e).[]
  112. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a.[]
  113. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d.[]
  114. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d(f)(8).[]
  115. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d(f)(3).[]
  116. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 97-37-17;  45-9-101.[]
  117. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-17.[]
  118. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 97-37-17(6),(7)(g).[]
  119. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10); 571.107.1(10).[]
  120. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10); 571.030.4; 571.017.1(10).[]
  121. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10); 571.030.4; 571.017.1(10).[]
  122. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(1).[]
  123. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(3).[]
  124. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(1).[]
  125. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  126. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  127. Handguns stored in unattended vehicles on school grounds by CCW permittees must be securely encased. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  128. Nevada Revised Statutes §§ 202.265(3); 202.3673(3).[]
  129. Nevada Revised Statutes §§ 202.265(3); 202.3673(3).[]
  130. Nevada Revised Statutes § 202.265.[]
  131. New Hampshire only bans pupils from possessing a firearm in a safe school zone, and also imposes a possible penalty enhancement for unlawful possession of a firearm in a safe school zone. “Unlawful possession of a firearm” occurs when someone who is prohibited from possessing a firearm possesses a firearm. NH Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193-D:3; 193-D:1.[]
  132. Federal law restricts carry on campus by people who do not have concealed carry permits or licenses. New Hampshire only bans pupils from possessing a firearm in a safe school zone, and also imposes a possible penalty enhancement for unlawful possession of a firearm in a safe school zone. “Unlawful possession of a firearm” occurs when someone who is prohibited from possessing a firearm possesses a firearm. NH Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193-D:3; 193-D:1.[]
  133. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  134. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  135. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  136. N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 30-7-2.1; 29-19-8.[]
  137. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-2.1.[]
  138. N.Y. Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  139. N.Y. Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  140. N.Y. Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  141. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2.[]
  142. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2.[]
  143. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2. Concealed handgun permittees can store firearms in a closed container in a locked vehicle on school property. []
  144. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05.[]
  145. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05.[]
  146. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05(2)(f).[]
  147. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122.[]
  148. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122(D)(1)(a).[]
  149. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122(D)(4).[]
  150. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1.[]
  151. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1(C)(4).[]
  152. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1.[]
  153. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(g).[]
  154. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(h).[]
  155. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(j).[]
  156. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912. There has been recent litigation about the scope of the law’s exception for people who possess weapons on school grounds for “other lawful purpose[s].” Pennsylvania courts have urged the Legislature to clarify this statute.[]
  157. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912.[]
  158. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912.[]
  159. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-60; 11-47-11. While state law allows people with concealed carry to bring guns into K-12 schools, the Rhode Island Board of Education has issued a directive prohibiting anyone but law enforcement from carrying. Commissioner Ken Wagner, “Firearms in Schools,” August 29, 2018, https://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/FieldMemos/SchlSafetyAnncmt-20180829.pd[]
  160. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-60.[]
  161. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-60.[]
  162. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  163. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420(A).[]
  164. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  165. S.D. Codified Laws § 13-32-7.[]
  166. S.D. Codified Laws § 13-32-7.[]
  167. S.D. Codified Laws § 13-32-7.[]
  168. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309.[]
  169. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309; 49-50-803.[]
  170. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309(c); 39-17-1310(4).[]
  171. Tex. Penal Code § 46.03(a)(1).[]
  172. Tex. Penal Code § 46.03(a)(1)(A).[]
  173. Tex. Penal Code § 46.03(a).[]
  174. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(a).[]
  175. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(b).[]
  176. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(d).[]
  177. Vermont’s firearm prohibitions apply only in school buildings and vehicles.[]
  178. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004.[]
  179. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004(c).[]
  180. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004.[]
  181. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1.[]
  182. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1.[]
  183. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1(E).[]
  184. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280.[]
  185. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280.[]
  186. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280(3)(e)-(g).[]
  187. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a.[]
  188. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a(b)(1)(B).[]
  189. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  190. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  191. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  192. Security guards who are retired law enforcement are not listed in this column.[]
  193. Though Ala. Code § 13A-11-72(e) seems to allow non-law enforcement carry on campus, A 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf..[]
  194. Alabama’s law about guns in schools prohibits carrying firearms “knowingly with intent to do bodily harm.” People with pistol permits are exempt from this prohibition. Ala. Code §§ 13A-11-72(c); 13A-11-72(e); 13A-11-75. However, a 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf.[]
  195. Alabama’s law about guns in schools prohibits carrying firearms “knowingly with intent to do bodily harm.” People with pistol permits are exempt from this prohibition. Ala. Code §§ 13A-11-72(c); 13A-11-72(e); 13A-11-75. However, a 2014 Attorney General opinion states that “A board of education that has notpreviously adopted an express policyprohibiting all persons, other thanauthorized law enforcement personnel,from bringing or possessing any deadlyweapon or dangerous instrument on schoolproperty is required to do so. Alabama Office of the Attorney General, “Opinion 2014-044,” February 28, 2014, https://www.alabamaag.gov/Documents/opin/2014-044.pdf.[]
  196. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.210(a)(7).[]
  197. Id.[]
  198. Id.[]
  199. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3102(I)(2).[]
  200. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3102(I)(2).[]
  201. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3102(I)(2).[]
  202. Ark. Code Ann.  § 5-73-119(e)(4).[]
  203. Ark. Code Ann.  § 5-73-119(e)(11).[]
  204. Ark. Code Ann.  § 5-73-119(e)(11).[]
  205. Cal. Penal Code §§ 626.9(m).[]
  206. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9.[]
  207. Id.[]
  208. Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-12-105.5(3)(d.5); 18-12-214(3).[]
  209. Colorado allows carrying “for the purpose of carrying out the necessary duties and functions of an employee of an educational institution that require the use of a deadly weapon.” Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.5.[]
  210. Colorado allows carrying “for the purpose of carrying out the necessary duties and functions of an employee of an educational institution that require the use of a deadly weapon.” Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.5.[]
  211. Connecticut allows carry by a person “in accordance with an agreement entered into between school officials and such person or such person’s employer.” Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-217b(b).[]
  212. Connecticut allows carry by a person “in accordance with an agreement entered into between school officials and such person or such person’s employer.” Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-217b(b).[]
  213. Connecticut allows carry by a person “in accordance with an agreement entered into between school officials and such person or such person’s employer.” Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-217b(b).[]
  214. D.C. Code § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  215. D.C. Code § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  216. D.C. Code § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  217. Note that there does not appear to be a restriction on openly carrying a firearm in a Safe School and Recreation Zone for adults, though federal law applies. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1457(a)-(c).[]
  218. Note that there does not appear to be a restriction on openly carrying a firearm in a Safe School and Recreation Zone for adults, though federal law applies. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1457(a)-(c).[]
  219. Note that there does not appear to be a restriction on openly carrying a firearm in a Safe School and Recreation Zone for adults, though federal law applies. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1457(a)-(c).[]
  220. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 1006.12.[]
  221. Id.[]
  222. Id.[]
  223. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1(5).[]
  224. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1(6).[]
  225. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127.1(6).[]
  226. As of March 2018, It does not appear that any of the ten largest school districts allow individuals or employees to carry firearms in K-12 schools. Some smaller districts permit firearms in schools, however, including Garden Valley School District, Blackfoot Charter Community Learning Center, Salmon River Joint School District and Mountain View School District.[]
  227. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(4).[]
  228. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(4)(g).[]
  229. Idaho Code § 18-3302D(4)(g).[]
  230. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(c)(3).[]
  231. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(c).[]
  232. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(c).[]
  233. As of March 2018, It does not appear that any of the largest school districts currently allow teachers or other individuals to carry firearms. At least one small district (North White School District) allows administrators to carry firearms, but not teachers.[]
  234. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-9-1.[]
  235. Ind. Code Ann. § 350-47-9-1.[]
  236. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-9-1.[]
  237. As of March 2018, the Iowa Department of Education and Iowa School Board Association are not aware of any district allowing teachers to carry firearms. However, schools and school districts do not appear to be required to report this information.[]
  238. Iowa Code § 724.4B(2).[]
  239. Iowa Code § 724.4B(2).[]
  240. Iowa Code § 724.4B(2).[]
  241. It does not appear that the largest school districts have allowed teachers to carry firearms, because the primary insurer of Kansas schools threatened to increase insurance premiums or refuse to insure school districts which permitted teachers to carry firearms.[]
  242. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(2).[]
  243. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(2).[]
  244. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 21-6301(a)(11); (j)(2).[]
  245. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.070(3)(f).[]
  246. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.070(3)(f).[]
  247. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 527.070(3)(f).[]
  248. Louisiana allows “A  school official or employee acting during the normal course of his employment” to carry a firearm. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 14:95.2(A),(C)(2).[]
  249. Louisiana’s law is vague, allowing “A school official or employee acting during the normal course of his employment” to carry a firearm. This does not appear to apply to school staff who are not security officers. However, bills have been introduced to amend the law to allow teachers to carry guns, none of which have passed. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 14:95.2(A),(C)(2).[]
  250. Louisiana’s law is vague, allowing “A school official or employee acting during the normal course of his employment” to carry a firearm. This does not appear to apply to school staff who are not security officers. However, bills have been introduced to amend the law to allow teachers to carry guns, none of which have passed. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 14:95.2(A),(C)(2).[]
  251. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  252. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  253. Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A, § 6552(1).[]
  254. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102(a)(3).[]
  255. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102.[]
  256. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-102.[]
  257. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  258. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  259. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j).[]
  260. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a(5)(d).[]
  261. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a(5)(e).[]
  262. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.237a(5)(e).[]
  263. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d(f)(8).[]
  264. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d(f)(8).[]
  265. Minn. Stat. § 609.66 Subd.1d(f)(8).[]
  266. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 97-37-17(7)(c); Section 97-37-7.[]
  267. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-17.[]
  268. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-17.[]
  269. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10);571.030.2(8).[]
  270. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10); 571.030.4; 571.017.1(10).[]
  271. Mo. Rev. Stat. §§ 571.030.1(10); 571.030.4; 571.017.1(10).[]
  272. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(3).[]
  273. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(3).[]
  274. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-361(3).[]
  275. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  276. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  277. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04.[]
  278. Nevada Revised Statutes § 202.265(3).[]
  279. Nevada Revised Statutes § 202.265(3).[]
  280. Nevada Revised Statutes § 202.265(3).[]
  281. Federal law restricts carry on campus by people who do not have concealed carry permits or licenses. New Hampshire only bans pupils from possessing a firearm in a safe school zone, and also imposes a possible penalty enhancement for unlawful possession of a firearm in a safe school zone. “Unlawful possession of a firearm” occurs when someone who is prohibited from possessing a firearm possesses a firearm. NH Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193-D:3; 193-D:1.[]
  282. Federal law restricts carry on campus by people who do not have concealed carry permits or licenses. New Hampshire only bans pupils from possessing a firearm in a safe school zone, and also imposes a possible penalty enhancement for unlawful possession of a firearm in a safe school zone. “Unlawful possession of a firearm” occurs when someone who is prohibited from possessing a firearm possesses a firearm. NH Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193-D:3; 193-D:1.[]
  283. Federal law restricts carry on campus by people who do not have concealed carry permits or licenses. New Hampshire only bans pupils from possessing a firearm in a safe school zone, and also imposes a possible penalty enhancement for unlawful possession of a firearm in a safe school zone. “Unlawful possession of a firearm” occurs when someone who is prohibited from possessing a firearm possesses a firearm. NH Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193-D:3; 193-D:1.[]
  284. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  285. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  286. N.J. Stat. § 2C:39-5(e).[]
  287. N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 30-7-2.1[]
  288. New Mexico’s law provides an exception for “a person conducting or participating in a school-approved program, class or other activity involving the carrying of a deadly weapon.” N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 30-7-2.1.[]
  289. New Mexico’s law provides an exception for “a person conducting or participating in a school-approved program, class or other activity involving the carrying of a deadly weapon.” N.M. Stat. Ann. §§ 30-7-2.1.[]
  290. NY Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  291. NY Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  292. NY Pen. Law § 265.01-A.[]
  293. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2(g)(7).[]
  294. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2.[]
  295. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2.[]
  296. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05(2)(h).[]
  297. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05.[]
  298. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-05.[]
  299. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122(D)(1)(a).[]
  300. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122(D)(1)(a).[]
  301. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. 2923.122(D)(1)(a).[]
  302. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1(C)(7).[]
  303. Oklahoma allows carry by any school personnel with security guard licenses who have been designated by the board of education to carry guns. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1.[]
  304. Oklahoma allows carry by any school personnel with security guard licenses who have been designated by the board of education to carry guns. 21 Okl. St. § 1280.1.[]
  305. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(g).[]
  306. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(g).[]
  307. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1),(3)(g).[]
  308. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912. Pennsylvania’s law about weapons in schools provides an exception for weapons possessed for “any lawful purpose.” Case law suggests that self-defense could count as a “lawful purpose” for this law, and the court has suggested that the legislature clarify what this exception means. Commonwealth v. Goslin, 2017 PA Super 38, 156 A.3d 314; Commonwealth v. Edwards, 217 A.3d 387 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2019).[]
  309. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912. Pennsylvania’s law about weapons in schools provides an exception for weapons possessed for “any lawful purpose.” Case law suggests that self-defense could count as a “lawful purpose” for this law, and the court has suggested that the legislature clarify what this exception means. Commonwealth v. Goslin, 2017 PA Super 38, 156 A.3d 314; Commonwealth v. Edwards, 217 A.3d 387 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2019).[]
  310. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 912. Pennsylvania’s law about weapons in schools provides an exception for weapons possessed for “any lawful purpose.” Case law suggests that self-defense could count as a “lawful purpose” for this law, and the court has suggested that the legislature clarify what this exception means. Commonwealth v. Goslin, 2017 PA Super 38, 156 A.3d 314; Commonwealth v. Edwards, 217 A.3d 387 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2019).[]
  311. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-60; 11-47-11. Though state law allows carry in schools by anyone with a CCW permit, over the years, many schools have adopted policies that ban firearm possession on campus by anyone other than law enforcement. A 2018 directive from the Board of Education extended these restrictions to all schools in order to create a more consistent state policy regarding firearms. Commissioner Ken Wagner, “Firearms in Schools,” August 29, 2018, https://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/FieldMemos/SchlSafetyAnncmt-20180829.pd[]
  312. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-60; 11-47-11. Though state law allows carry in schools by anyone with a CCW permit, over the years, many schools have adopted policies that ban firearm possession on campus by anyone other than law enforcement. A 2018 directive from the Board of Education extended these restrictions to all schools in order to create a more consistent state policy regarding firearms. Commissioner Ken Wagner, “Firearms in Schools,” August 29, 2018, https://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/FieldMemos/SchlSafetyAnncmt-20180829.pd[]
  313. R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-60; 11-47-11. Though state law allows carry in schools by anyone with a CCW permit, over the years, many schools have adopted policies that ban firearm possession on campus by anyone other than law enforcement. A 2018 directive from the Board of Education extended these restrictions to all schools in order to create a more consistent state policy regarding firearms. Commissioner Ken Wagner, “Firearms in Schools,” August 29, 2018, https://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/FieldMemos/SchlSafetyAnncmt-20180829.pd[]
  314. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  315. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  316. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  317. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 13-32-7; 13-64-1.[]
  318. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 13-32-7; 13-64-1.[]
  319. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 13-32-7; 13-64-1.[]
  320. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309(e)(6), (e)(7).[]
  321. Tennessee allows schools in “distressed rural counties” to adopt a policy that authorizes certain staff members to carry concealed firearms, if they fulfill certain training and licensing requirements. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309; 49-6-816.[]
  322. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309; 49-50-803.[]
  323. Tennessee allows schools in “distressed rural counties” to adopt a policy that authorizes certain staff members to carry concealed firearms, if they fulfill certain training and licensing requirements. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309; 49-6-816.[]
  324. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1309; 49-50-803.[]
  325. Tex. Educ. Code Ann. § 37.0811.[]
  326. Tex. Educ. Code Ann. § 37.0811.[]
  327. Tex. Educ. Code Ann. § 37.0811.[]
  328. Utah allows anyone with a concealed carry permit to carry firearms on campus. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(a).[]
  329. Utah allows anyone with a concealed carry permit to carry firearms on campus. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(a).[]
  330. Utah allows anyone with a concealed carry permit to carry firearms on campus. Utah Code Ann. § 76-10-505.5(4)(a).[]
  331. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004(c).[]
  332. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004(c).[]
  333. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004(c).[]
  334. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1.[]
  335. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1(E).[]
  336. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1.[]
  337. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1.[]
  338. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280(3)(b).[]
  339. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280.[]
  340. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.280.[]
  341. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a.[]
  342. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a.[]
  343. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a.[]
  344. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  345. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  346. Wis. Stat. § 948.605.[]
  347. Training and licensing requirements apply. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 21-3-132.[]
  348. Training and licensing requirements apply. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 21-3-132.[]
  349. Training and licensing requirements apply. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 21-3-132.[]
  350. Ala. Code § 16-1-24.3; Alaska Stat. § 14.03.160; Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 15-841(G); Ark. Code §§ 6-18-502(c)(2); 6-18-503(a)(1)(C)(ii); 6-18-507(e); Cal. Ed. Code §§ 48900(b); 48915(b), (c); Colo. Rev. Stat. § 22-33-106(1.5); Conn. Gen. Stat. § 10-233d(a)(2), (e); Del. Code Ann. Tit. 11, § 1457(c), (j)(5); DC Code §§ 38-231, 38-233, 38-234(a); Fla. Stat. §§ 1006.07(2)(g), (l); 1006.13(3)(a); Ga. Code Ann. §§ 20-2-751.1; 20-2-751(4); Haw. Rev. Stat. § 302A-1134(b); Idaho Code § 33-205; 105 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/10-22.6(d); Ind. Code Ann. § 20-33-8-16(d), (e); Iowa Code § 280.21B; Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 72-89a02; 72-89a01(b); Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 158.150(1)(a), (2)(a); La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 17:416(C)(2)(a)(i), (b)(i), (c)(i); 17:416(A)(3)(a)(x); Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 20-A §§ 1001(9)(C); 1001(9-A); Md. Code Ann., Educ. § 7-305(f); Md. Code Regs. 13A.08.01.12-1; Mich. Cop. Laws § 380.1311(2), (3), (10); Minn. Stat. § 121A.44; Miss. Code Ann. § 37-11-18; Mo. Rev. Stat. § 160.261(5), (6); Mont. Code Ann. § 20-5-202(2), (3), (4)(b); Neb. Rev. Stat. § 79-263; Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 392.466(2); N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 193:13(III); 193-D:1(II); N.J. Stat. Ann. § 18A:37-8; N.J. Admin. Code § 6A:16-5.5; N.M. Stat. Ann. § 22-5-4.7(A), (C); N.Y. Educ. Law § 3214(3)(d), (f); N.C. Gen. Stat. § 115C-390.10(a); N.D. Cent. Code §§ 15.1-19-10; 15.1-19-09(4); Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3313.66(B)(2); Okla. Stat. tit. 70, § 24-101.3(C)(2); Or. Rev. Stat. § 339.250(7); 24 Pa. Stat. Ann. § 13-1317.2; R.I. Gen. Laws § 16-21-18; S.C. Code Ann. § 59-63-235; S.D. Codified Laws § 13-32-4; Tenn. Code Ann. § 49-6-3401(a)(7), (g); Tex. Educ. Code §§ 37.007(a)(1)(A), (b)(3)(B), (e); Utah Code Ann. § 53A-11-904(2)(a)(i)(A), (B), (b); Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 16, §§ 1162(a), 1166; Va. Code Ann. § 22.1-277.07(A), (E); Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 28A.600.420; W. Va. Code §§ 18A-5-1a(a)(ii), 18A-5-1a(i); Wis. Stat. § 120.13(1)(c)(2m); Wyo. Stat. §§ 21-4-305(a); 21-4-306(a)(v).[]
  351. Massachusetts law states only that, as part of the each school district’s policies pertaining to the conduct of students, any student found on school premises or at school-sponsored or school-related events, including athletic games, in possession of a firearm may be subject to expulsion from the school or school district. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 71, § 37H(a). No law requires mandatory expulsion for students possessing guns at school.[]
  352. See University of Alabama, “Dangerous Weapons and Firearms Policy,” accessed October 27, 2020, https://fa-webprod.fa.ua.edu/UAFASPOnlinePublic/804c2645-66d2-4035-87fe-4f4c0e88f646/Dangerous%20Weapons%20and%20Firearms%20Policy.pdf.[]
  353. See University of Alabama, “Dangerous Weapons and Firearms Policy,” accessed October 27, 2020, https://fa-webprod.fa.ua.edu/UAFASPOnlinePublic/804c2645-66d2-4035-87fe-4f4c0e88f646/Dangerous%20Weapons%20and%20Firearms%20Policy.pdf.[]
  354. University of Alaska Board of Regents, “P02.09.020 Possession of Weapons,” accessed October 27, 2020, https://www.alaska.edu/bor/policy/02-09.pdf.[]
  355. University of Alaska Board of Regents, “P02.09.020 Possession of Weapons,” accessed October 27, 2020, https://www.alaska.edu/bor/policy/02-09.pdf.[]
  356. Ariz. Admin. Code § 7-4-102(3).[]
  357. Ariz. Admin. Code § 7-4-102(3).[]
  358. Arkansas Code § 5-73-322. Carry is not allowed at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences or at college athletic events. Ark. Code § 5-73-122(3)(D).[]
  359. Arkansas Code § 5-73-322(b),(d).[]
  360. Cal. Penal Code § 626.9(h),(i).[]
  361. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.5. See Regents of the Univ. of Colo. v. Students for Concealed Carry on Campus, 271 P.3d 496 (Colo. 2012); see also C.R.S. § 18-12-214(1) (Colorado Concealed Carry Act).[]
  362. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.5.[]
  363. See University of Connecticut Clery Compliance Department, “2014 Annual Security & Fire Report,” revised April 2016, https://publicsafety.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1532/2015/09/2014-ASFR.pdf; University of Connecticut, “Community Standards Part III: Proscribed Conduct,” accessed October 28, 2020, https://community.uconn.edu/the-student-code-part-iii/.[]
  364. See University of Connecticut Clery Compliance Department, “2014 Annual Security & Fire Report,” revised April 2016, https://publicsafety.uconn.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1532/2015/09/2014-ASFR.pdf; University of Connecticut, “Community Standards Part III: Proscribed Conduct,” accessed October 28, 2020, https://community.uconn.edu/the-student-code-part-iii/.[]
  365. 14 Del. C. § 9004.[]
  366. University of Delaware, “Possession and Use of Firearms on University Property,” revised December 2014, https://sites.udel.edu/generalcounsel/policies/possession-and-use-of-firearms-on-university-property/.[]
  367. University of Delaware, “Possession and Use of Firearms on University Property,” revised December 2014, https://sites.udel.edu/generalcounsel/policies/possession-and-use-of-firearms-on-university-property/.[]
  368. D.C. Code § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  369. D.C. Code § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  370. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.115(2). There are specified exceptions, such as firearms carried for school programs.[]
  371. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.06(12)(a)(13), (b); see Florida Carry, Inc. v. Univ. of N. Florida, 133 So. 3d 966, 977 (Fla. Ct. App. 2013) (en banc).[]
  372. Ga. Code § 16-11-127.1(c)(6),(20).[]
  373. Ga. Code § 16-11-127.1(c)(6),(20).[]
  374. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-3309(1), (2).[]
  375. Idaho Code Ann. § 18-3309(2).[]
  376. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(4), (10), (c)(1.5), (4).[]
  377. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(4), (10).[]
  378. Indiana’s statute prohibiting firearms on school property uses a relatively vague definition of “school property” which seems not to apply to postsecondary schools. Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-31.5-2-285.[]
  379. Indiana University, “Possession of Firearms and Weapons,” May 8, 2013, https://policies.iu.edu/policies/ps-03-firearms-weapons/index.html.[]
  380. Indiana’s statute prohibiting firearms on school property uses a relatively vague definition of “school property” which seems not to apply to postsecondary schools. Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 35-31.5-2-285.[]
  381. Indiana University, “Possession of Firearms and Weapons,” May 8, 2013, https://policies.iu.edu/policies/ps-03-firearms-weapons/index.html.[]
  382. 681 Iowa Admin. Code 9.1(2)(g).[]
  383. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 75-7C,20(a)(m).[]
  384. K.S.A. § 75-7c20(a), (m)(1).[]
  385. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.115(1).[]
  386. University of Kentucky, “Policy on Deadly Weapons,” June 19, 2012, https://www.uky.edu/regs/sites/www.uky.edu.regs/files/files/ar/ar6-6.pdf.[]
  387. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.115(1).[]
  388. University of Kentucky, “Policy on Deadly Weapons,” June 19, 2012, https://www.uky.edu/regs/sites/www.uky.edu.regs/files/files/ar/ar6-6.pdf.[]
  389. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 40:1379.3; 14:95.2(C).[]
  390. La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 40:1379.3; 14:95.2(C).[]
  391. Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 20-A, § 10009.[]
  392. University of Maine, “Weapons Policy,” April 1996, https://umaine.edu/hr/wp-content/uploads/sites/355/2018/05/Weapons-Policy.pdf#:~:text=1.,the%20Office%20of%20Public%20Safety.[]
  393. Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 20-A, § 10009.[]
  394. University of Maine, “Weapons Policy,” April 1996, https://umaine.edu/hr/wp-content/uploads/sites/355/2018/05/Weapons-Policy.pdf#:~:text=1.,the%20Office%20of%20Public%20Safety.[]
  395. University of Maryland Code of Student Conduct, “V-1.00(B), page 4, https://policies.umd.edu/assets/section-v/V-100B.pdf.[]
  396. University of Maryland Code of Student Conduct, “V-1.00(B), page 4, https://policies.umd.edu/assets/section-v/V-100B.pdf.[]
  397. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j). There is an exception if one has written authorization to carry a firearm.[]
  398. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 269, § 10(j). There is an exception if one has written authorization to carry a firearm.[]
  399. Some schools in Michigan have allowed concealed carry on campus other than in dorms or classrooms (See Brittany Shammas, “MSU Allows People to Carry Concealed Firearms on Campus,” The State News, June 21, 2009, http://statenews.com/index.php/article/2009/06/msu_allows_people_to_carry_concealed_firearms_on_campus), but other schools, such as the University of Michigan, have prohibited firearms everywhere on campus. The Michigan Court of Appeals rejected a constitutional challenge to the University of Michigan’s policy and ruled that the university has authority to prohibit firearms on campus, including by concealed carry permit holders. Wade v. University of Michigan, No. 330555 (Mich. Ct. App. Jun. 6, 2017); Kim Kozlowski, “Court: University of Michigan Can Ban Guns on Campus,” The Detroit News, June 7, 2017, http://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/local/michigan/2017/06/07/um-campus-guns/102583380/.[]
  400. Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.425o(1)(h).[]
  401. Minn. Stat. § 624.714, Subd. 18. Schools may not prohibit lawful possession of firearms in a parking facility or parking area.[]
  402. University of Minnesota, “Board of Regents Policy: Possession and Carrying of Weapons,” July 11, 2003, https://regents.umn.edu/sites/regents.umn.edu/files/2019-09/policy_possession_and_carrying_weapons.pdf.[]
  403. Minn. Stat. § 624.714, Subd. 18(c).[]
  404. See Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-7(2). Private schools are free to prohibit firearms on campus if they choose to. Op. Miss. Att’y Gen. No. 2013-00023 (Oct. 1, 2013), 2013 Miss. AG LEXIS 248, *8-9 (“An enhanced permit cannot constitutionally take away the rights of property owners to exclude persons from their property if that is their wish. …Therefore, private property owners, including… private schools…may exclude from their premises persons carrying weapons.”[]
  405. See Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-7(2)(stating that “A person licensed under Section 45-9-101 to carry a concealed pistol, who has voluntarily completed an instructional course in the safe handling and use of firearms offered by an instructor certified by a nationally recognized organization that customarily offers firearms training, or by any other organization approved by the Department of Public Safety, shall also be authorized to carry weapons in . . . any location listed in subsection (13) of Section 45-9-101[,]” which lists, among other locations, any elementary or secondary school facility, and any junior college, community college, college or university facility.”); Op. Miss. Att’y Gen., answer to Question No. 4 (Jan. 5, 2012), at https://handgunlaw.us/documents/agopinions/MSAGOpinionOnCarryOnCampusWithEndorsement.pdf.[]
  406. Op. Miss. Att’y Gen. No. 2013-00023 (Oct. 1, 2013), 2013 Miss. AG LEXIS 248, *8-9 (“An enhanced permit cannot constitutionally take away the rights of property owners to exclude persons from their property if that is their wish. …Therefore, private property owners, including… private schools…may exclude from their premises persons carrying weapons”).[]
  407. Firearms are allowed with permission from the school. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(10).[]
  408. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(10).[]
  409. Montana Board of Regents of Higher Education, “Policy 1006 – Security and Law Enforcement Operations,” revised May 25, 2012, https://mus.edu/borpol/bor1000/1006.pdf.[]
  410. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04(1). See our page on guns in schools in Nebraska for a full list of exceptions.[]
  411. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 28-1204.04(1)(h).[]
  412. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 202.265; 202.3673(3).[]
  413. Firearms may be stored with the University Policy Department. University System of New Hampshire, “J. Firearms on Campus,” updated January 9, 2018, https://www.usnh.edu/unh/iii-administrative-policies/j-firearms-campus.[]
  414. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:39-5(e)(1).[]
  415. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-2.4.[]
  416. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-2.4(A)(5).[]
  417. N.Y. Penal Law §§ 265.01-a.[]
  418. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2.[]
  419. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.2(k).[]
  420. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-13.[]
  421. University of North Dakota, “Workplace Violence,” reviewed February 2020, https://und.policystat.com/policy/7717363/latest/.[]
  422. N.D. Cent. Code, § 62.1-02-13.[]
  423. University of North Dakota, “Workplace Violence,” reviewed February 2020, https://und.policystat.com/policy/7717363/latest/.[]
  424. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2923.126(B)(5).[]
  425. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 2923.126(B)(5).[]
  426. Okla. Stat. tit. 21, §§ 1290.4, 1277(G); see also “Oklahoma Open Carry FAQ,” OK.gov, accessed December 7, 2018, https://www.ok.gov/governor/OpenCarryFAQ.html (“Generally, you cannot openly carry at … Colleges, Universities or Technology Centers”).[]
  427. Okla. Stat. tit. 21, §§ 1290.4, 1277(G).[]
  428. Okla. Stat. tit. 21, §§ 1290.4, 1277(G).[]
  429. Or. Firearms Educ. Found. v. Bd. of Higher Educ., 245 Ore. App. 713, 717, 722-23 (Or. Ct. App. 2011); see also Bill Graves, “Oregon State Board of Higher Education Resorts to Policy to Ban Guns on Campus,” The Oregonian, March 2, 2012,  www.oregonlive.com/education/index.ssf/2012/03/oregon_state_board_of_higher_e_7.html.[]
  430. Or. Firearms Educ. Found. v. Bd. of Higher Educ., 245 Ore. App. 713, 717, 722-23 (Or. Ct. App. 2011).[]
  431. Oregon University System, “Policy on Firearms,” March 2, 2012, https://policy.oregonstate.edu/sites/policy.oregonstate.edu/files/firearms_policy.pdf.[]
  432. People can carry if given specific authorization from the University. Pennsylvania State University, “SY12 Weapons and Fireworks Regulations, Fireworks, and Paintball Devices,” updated June 19, 2014, https://policy.psu.edu/policies/sy12.[]
  433. People can carry if given specific authorization from the University. Pennsylvania State University, “SY12 Weapons and Fireworks Regulations, Fireworks, and Paintball Devices,” updated June 19, 2014, https://policy.psu.edu/policies/sy12.[]
  434. University of Rhode Island, “Student Handbook,” accessed November 1, 2020, 21, https://web.uri.edu/studentconduct/files/2015-2017-Student-Handbook.pdf.[]
  435. University of Rhode Island, “Student Handbook,” accessed November 1, 2020, 21, https://web.uri.edu/studentconduct/files/2015-2017-Student-Handbook.pdf.[]
  436. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  437. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420.[]
  438. South Dakota Board of Regents, “Violence in the Workplace and Educational Settings,” accessed November 1, 2020, https://www.sdbor.edu/policy/documents/1-25.pdf. For a list of exceptions, see University of South Dakota, “Student Handbook 2020-2021,” accessed November 1, 2020, https://www.usd.edu/-/media/files/student-life/usdstudenthandbook.ashx.[]
  439. University of South Dakota, “Student Handbook 2020-2021,” accessed November 1, 2020, https://www.usd.edu/-/media/files/student-life/usdstudenthandbook.ashx.[]
  440. Several location restrictions apply to carry by employees with enhanced carry permits. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309, (e). Private schools are free to adopt policies either allowing or prohibiting the carrying of firearms on campus. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 49-7-161; 39-17-1309.[]
  441. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309(c)(1)(b).[]
  442. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309(e)(11).[]
  443. A working group at University of Texas, Austin decided that a ban on handguns in classrooms has the effect of excluding licensed handguns from campus. Tex. Gov’t. Code § 411.2031.[]
  444. Tex. Gov’t. Code § 411.2031.[]
  445. Tex. Gov’t. Code § 411.2031.[]
  446. Utah Code Ann. § 53B-3-103.[]
  447. Utah Code Ann. § 53B-3-103(2).[]
  448. Vermont does prohibit knowingly possessing a firearm within a “school building,” and on any school property with the intent to injure another person. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4004(a)-(b). But it is not clear whether this applies to buildings on public or private colleges or universities, because “school” is undefined.[]
  449. The University of Vermont, “Weapons,” accessed November 4, 2020, https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/UVM-Policies/policies/firearms.pdf.[]
  450. The University of Vermont, “Weapons,” accessed November 4, 2020, https://www.uvm.edu/sites/default/files/UVM-Policies/policies/firearms.pdf.[]
  451. Op. Att’y Gen. Va. 05-078 (Jan. 4, 2006), 2006 Va. AG LEXIS 3, *6-*7 (opining that CCW cannot be prohibited in open areas of public campuses by licensed members of the public). See Digiacinto v. Rector & Visitors of George Mason Univ., 704 S.E.2d 365, 369 (Va. 2011).[]
  452. ((Op. Att’y Gen. Va. 05-078 (Jan. 4, 2006), 2006 Va. AG LEXIS 3, *6-*7 (opining that CCW cannot be prohibited in open areas of public campuses by licensed members of the public). However, public colleges and universities may still restrict concealed carry by students and employees, and in places where people congregate, such as in buildings or at events. See Digiacinto v. Rector & Visitors of George Mason Univ., 704 S.E.2d 365, 369 (Va. 2011).[]
  453. Wash. Admin. Code § 478-124-020(e).[]
  454. West Virginia University, “Deadly Weapons/Destructive Devices Policy,” updated June 1, 2016, https://strategicinitiatives.wvu.edu/policies/university-policies-policies/deadly-weapons-destructive-devices-policy#:~:text=Possession%20or%20storage%20of%20a,facilities%20and%20in%20University%20vehicles.[]
  455. West Virginia University, “Deadly Weapons/Destructive Devices Policy,” updated June 1, 2016, https://strategicinitiatives.wvu.edu/policies/university-policies-policies/deadly-weapons-destructive-devices-policy#:~:text=Possession%20or%20storage%20of%20a,facilities%20and%20in%20University%20vehicles.[]
  456. Wis. Stats. § 943.13(1m)(5); see also “Carrying Weapons or Firearms at University of Wisconsin Institutions,” University of Wisconsin Systems, October 14, 2011, https://www.wisconsin.edu/uw-policies/uw-system-administrative-policies/carrying-weapons-or-firearms-at-university-of-wisconsin-institutions/ (policy for the University of Wisconsin requiring that schools post signs prohibiting individuals from carrying weapons or firearms in campus buildings).[]
  457. Wis. Stats. § 943.13(1m)(5).[]
  458. There is an exception if one has consent from the college or university. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-8-104(t)(vi), (x).[]
  459. There is an exception if one has consent from the college or university. Wyo. Stat. Ann. § 6-8-104(t)(vi), (x).[]
  460. The exception is Mississippi, where state law allows individuals who possess an enhanced concealed carry permit to carry concealed firearms on any “college or university facility” (so includes private as well as public institutions). See Miss. Code Ann. §§ 97-37-7(2), 45-9-101(13).[]
  461. 2017 AR HB 1249 (signed by the Governor Mar. 22, 2017), amending Ark. Code § 5-73-122.[]
  462. Id.[]
  463. 2017 GA HB 280 (signed by the Governor May 4, 2017), amending Ga. Code § 16-11-127.1.[]
  464. See 2014 Idaho S.B. 1254 (signed by the Governor March 12, 2014).[]
  465. Kan. Stat. Ann. §§ 75-7c20(a)-(c), (m)(1).[]
  466. “Kansas Board of Regents Revised Weapons Policy”, Kansas State University, Accessed December 6, 2018, https://www.k-state.edu/vpaf/weaponspolicy/approved-BOR-weapons-policy.pdf.[]
  467. Miss. Code Ann. § 97-37-7(2).[]
  468. See 2015 Tenn. S.B. 2376 (enacted), creating Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1309(e)(9).[]
  469. Adam Tamburin, “Tennessee Colleges Scramble as Law Allowing Guns on Campus Nears,” The Tennessean (Jun. 18, 2016),http://www.tennessean.com/story/news/education/2016/06/17/tennessee-colleges-scramble-campus-carry-law-nears/85847784/.[]
  470. 2015 Tx. S.B. 11, creating Tex. Gov’t. Code § 411.2031.[]
  471. Id.[]
  472. Utah Code Ann. §§ 53B-3-103(1), (2)(a)(ii), (2)(b), 76-8-311.1; Utah Admin. Code r. 765-254-3.[]
  473. Digiacinto v. Rector & Visitors of George Mason Univ., 704 S.E.2d 365 (Va. 2011) (school regulations that restrict weapons in places where people congregate and are most vulnerable, but allow gun possession in the open areas of campus, are valid, constitutional provisions).[]
  474. See id.[]
  475. Op. Att’y Gen. Va. 05-078 (2006), 2006 Va. AG LEXIS 3, *6-*7 (the governing boards of colleges and universities may not impose a general prohibition on the carrying of concealed weapons by permit holders, but may regulate the conduct of students and employees to prohibit them from carrying concealed firearms on campus).[]
  476. See Wis. Stat. § 943.13(1m)(c)(2), (5). Campuses may prohibit firearms from campus buildings if signs are posted at entrances explicitly stating that weapons are prohibited.[]