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States that allow firearms in sensitive or dangerous places are needlessly endangering the lives of their residents.

Prohibiting the open and concealed carrying of guns in locations such as bars and childcare facilities is a critical step towards saving lives from gun violence. The gun lobby’s efforts to allow guns in more and more places where groups of people gather is a critical threat to public safety.

Background

All states place at least some restrictions on who, how, and where people can carry guns in public. While most states use a licensing process to address who can carry concealed, and in some cases, openly visible guns, all states restrict to varying degrees where licensed and unlicensed individuals may carry firearms.

Typically, states prohibit guns completely or partially in places where the presence of guns is particularly dangerous, such as where people consume alcohol, where tensions can flare, such as at sporting events or airports, or where there is a high danger that the presence of guns might chill First Amendment rights, such as at polling places and legislative buildings.

The gun lobby has claimed that “gun-free zones” invite mass shootings, but this claim has been thoroughly debunked. Since 1966, the overwhelming majority—nearly 90%—of all mass shootings resulting in six or more deaths have occurred wholly or partly in locations where civilian guns were allowed or there was armed security or law enforcement present.1

Though many of the areas where states prohibit gun possession are public or government-owned property, some of the sensitive areas described above are private property open to the public. When guns are not particularly or unusually dangerous on private property, states generally allow owners to make decisions about whether or not to allow guns on their property. In recent years, however, state legislatures that are friendly to the gun lobby have begun chipping away at private property owners’ right to prohibit guns on their properties.

Summary of Federal Law

Federal law restricts gun possession on certain types of federal property and near schools, though this is subject to several exceptions:

Federal Facilities: Generally, federal law prohibits a person from knowingly possessing or attempting to possess a firearm in a federal facility, which is defined as “a building or part thereof owned or leased by the Federal Government, where Federal employees are regularly present for the purpose of performing their official duties.”2

Post Offices: Firearms are prohibited on postal property, including parking lots, whether carried openly or concealed.3

Airports and Airplanes: Firearms are prohibited in “sterile areas” of airports, which are those portions of an airport that provide passengers access to boarding aircraft and to which the access generally is controlled by Transportation Security Administration, or by an aircraft operator, through the screening of persons and property.4 Firearms are generally prohibited on airplanes except when an individual is transporting a weapon (except a loaded firearm) in baggage not accessible to a passenger in flight and the air carrier was informed of the presence of the weapon.5

Capitol Building: Federal law prohibits firearms in the federal Capitol building except as authorized by regulations prescribed by the Capitol Police Board.6

K—12 Schools: The Gun-Free School Zones Act (GFSZA) prohibits any person from knowingly possessing a firearm at a place the individual knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is a “school zone.”7 A school zone is defined as in, or on the grounds of, or within a distance of 1,000 feet from the grounds of, a public, parochial or private school that provides elementary or secondary education.8 However, individuals with state-issued concealed carry permits are not prohibited by the GFSZA from possessing a gun in a school zone. For a more complete discussion of the GFSZA, visit our Guns in Schools Policy Page.9

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Where guns may not be prohibited

In 1983, President Ronald Reagan’s administration implemented regulations that prohibited guns in national parks and national wildlife refuges unless they were packed or kept in a manner that would prevent their ready use, such as being stored in a locked car trunk.10 Reversing that decision in 2008, Oklahoma Senator Tom Coburn inserted an amendment into the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act that prevents the secretary of the interior from making or enforcing any laws that would restrict or prevent the carrying of firearms in national parks or wildlife refuges.

Today, any person may possess, carry, and transport concealed, loaded, and operable firearms within a national park or national wildlife refuge in accordance with the laws of the state in which the park or refuge is located.11

Summary of State Law

All states prohibit the concealed or open carry of handguns or long guns in at least some areas. In many cases, a prohibition on guns in a particular location will apply to guns carried openly or concealed, regardless of whether an individual has a concealed carry permit (CCW). However, some states leave loopholes in which openly carried guns are permissible where concealed guns are not.

Government Buildings & Meetings

Some or all guns are off-limits in the following categories of government buildings and meetings in the listed states. It should be noted that there is significant overlap in the locations covered by different tables, and many inquiries about a state’s laws may require consulting several tables.

For example, if a state wants to restrict carrying firearms at meetings of the state legislature, it can make the restriction specific to meetings of the state legislature, restrict carry in the State Capitol, or restrict carry in all government buildings. A state that prohibits carry in all government buildings is unlikely to have laws specifically restricting carry in the State Capitol or in meetings of the legislature because they would be redundant, so that state would not appear in the “Meetings of the State Legislature” table, even though the state does have a law restricting carry in that situation.

States that Prohibit Firearms in Airports
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Arkansas12Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Allowed
Georgia13Prohibited beyond security checkpoint
Prohibited beyond security checkpoint
Illinois14Prohibited
Prohibited
Michigan15
(Passenger terminals)




Montana16
Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)




Prohibited
Allowed






Allowed
Nevada17Prohibited
Allowed
Oregon18Prohibited
Prohibited
Virginia19Prohibited
Prohibited
As noted above, federal law prohibits firearms in sterile areas of airports. These states go above and beyond federal law by prohibiting firearms in general access areas as well.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Courthouses and Courtrooms
State Concealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama20Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas
(Courtrooms only)21
Prohibited
Prohibited
Alaska22Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas
(Courtrooms only)23
Prohibited
Prohibited
Florida24Prohibited
Prohibited25
Georgia26Prohibited
Prohibited
Illinois27Prohibited
Prohibited
Kentucky28Prohibited
Prohibited
Louisiana29Prohibited
(Judges exempt)
Allowed
Maine30Prohibited
Prohibited
Michigan31Allowed
Prohibited
(People with CCW permits may be allowed)
Minnesota32Allowed
(Must notify sheriff of intention to carry)
Prohibited
(People with CCW permits may be allowed)
Mississippi33Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees can carry in courthouses, but not in courtrooms during proceedings)
Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees can carry in courthouses, but not in courtrooms during proceedings)
Missouri34



Montana35
Prohibited
Allowed
New Hampshire 36Prohibited
Prohibited
New Mexico 37Prohibited
Prohibited
Nebraska 38Prohibited
Allowed
Nevada 39Prohibited
Allowed
North Carolina 40Prohibited
(Judges are exempt)
Prohibited
(State courthouses)
Ohio 41Prohibited
Prohibited
Oklahoma 42Prohibited
Prohibited
Oregon 43Allowed
Prohibited
Pennsylvania 44Prohibited
Prohibited
South Carolina 45Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
South Dakota 46Prohibited
Prohibited
Tennessee 47
(Only while proceedings are in progress)
Prohibited
(Judges are exempt)
Prohibited
Texas 48Prohibited
Prohibited
Vermont 49Prohibited
Prohibited
Virginia 50Prohibited
Prohibited
Washington 51 (Restricted areas)Prohibited
Prohibited
West Virginia 52Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin 53Prohibited
Prohibited
Wyoming 54 (Courtrooms only)Prohibited
Prohibited
See the ‘Government-Owned Buildings’ table for states that may also prohibit guns in courthouses but do not specifically prohibit guns in courthouses.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Government-Owned Buildings
State Concealed Carry
Open Carry
California55Allowed
Prohibited56
Illinois57Prohibited
Prohibited
Kansas58
(Only buildings with security screenings)
Prohibited
Allowed
Nevada59Prohibited
Allowed
North Dakota60
(Does not apply to public rest areas or restrooms)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Ohio61
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Allowed
Oklahoma62
(Only government buildings used to conduct business with the public)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Oregon63Allowed
(CCW permittees only)
Allowed
(CCW permittees only)
South Carolina64Prohibited
Prohibited
Virginia65Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin66Allowed
Prohibited
(CCW permittees may be allowed)
Laws that prohibit guns in government-owned buildings apply broadly to other specific categories of government property, such as courthouses, meetings of the state legislature, local government meetings, law enforcement offices, and the state capitol and state offices.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Law Enforcement Stations or Offices
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama67Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas68Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees may be allowed)
Prohibited
Florida69Prohibited
Prohibited70
Kentucky71Prohibited
Allowed
Louisiana72Prohibited
Allowed
Michigan73Prohibited
Prohibited
Missouri74Prohibited
Allowed
North Carolina75Prohibited
Allowed
Nebraska76Prohibited
Allowed
Nevada77Prohibited
Allowed
Ohio78Prohibited
Allowed
South Carolina79Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Washington80 (Restricted access areas)Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin81Prohibited
Prohibited
Wyoming 82Prohibited
Allowed
See the ‘Government-Owned Buildings’ table for states that may also prohibit guns in law enforcement stations but do not specifically prohibit guns in law enforcement stations.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Local Government Meetings
State Concealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama83Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas84Prohibited (Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Allowed
California85Allowed
Prohibited86
Florida87Prohibited
Prohibited88
Kentucky89Prohibited
(Members of meeting body are exempt)
Allowed
Missouri90Prohibited
(Members of meeting body are exempt)
Allowed
Nebraska91Prohibited
Allowed
South Carolina92Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Texas93Prohibited
in open meetings if ‘effective notice’ is provided
Prohibited
in open meetings if ‘effective notice’ is provided
Wyoming94Prohibited
Allowed
See the ‘Government-Owned Buildings’ table for states that may also prohibit guns in local government meetings but do not specifically prohibit guns in local government meetings.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Meetings of the State Legislature
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
California95Prohibited
Prohibited
Florida96Prohibited
Prohibited97
Kentucky98Prohibited
(Legislators are exempt)
Allowed
Mississippi99Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Allowed
Missouri100Prohibited
Allowed
Nebraska101Prohibited
Allowed
Texas102Prohibited
in open meetings if ‘effective notice’ is provided
Prohibited
in open meetings if ‘effective notice’ is provided
Washington103Allowed
Prohibited
Wyoming104Prohibited
Allowed
See the ‘Government-Owned Buildings’ and the ‘State Capitol’ tables for states that may also prohibit guns in meetings of the state legislature but do not specifically prohibit guns in meetings of the state legislature.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Public Transit
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
California105
(Sterile areas)
Allowed
Prohibited106
Colorado107
(Facilities only)
Prohibited
Prohibited
District of Columbia108
(Vehicles only)
Prohibited
Prohibited109
Illinois110Prohibited
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in the State Capitol / State House / State Offices
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama111
(State House)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas112
(State Capitol)
Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Prohibited
California113
(State Capitol)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Colorado114
(General assembly buildings)
Allowed
Prohibited
Connecticut115Prohibited
Prohibited
District of Columbia116
(US Capitol buildings. District of Columbia government buildings)
Prohibited
Prohibited117
Idaho118Prohibited
Prohibited
Iowa119
(State Capitol)
Allowed (no permit required)
Prohibited
Minnesota120
(State Capitol)
Allowed
(Must provide notice of intention to carry to sheriff)
Prohibited
(CCW permittees may be allowed)
Louisiana121
(State Capitol)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi122
(Meeting place of the legislature)
Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees can carry)
Allowed
Montana 123
(State offices)
Prohibited
Allowed
North Carolina 124
(State Capitol. State and federal offices)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Nevada 125
(Legislative building)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Oregon126Prohibited
Prohibited
South Carolina 127Prohibited
Prohibited
South Dakota 128Prohibited (Enhanced CCW permittees who provide notice are allowed)
Prohibited
Virginia129
(State Capitol building, and the Capitol Square and the surrounding area)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Washington130Allowed
Prohibited
West Virginia 131Prohibited
Prohibited
See the ‘Government-Owned Buildings’ table for states that may also prohibit guns in these state buildings but do not specifically prohibit guns in specific state buildings.

Government-Owned Land

In addition to prohibiting guns in government buildings, many states also restrict carry on government-owned land, like parks and wildlife preserves.

States that Prohibit Firearms in Public Parks
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
South Carolina132Allowed
Allowed
Oklahoma133Allowed
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in State Parks
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
California134
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Maine135Allowed
Prohibited
Minnesota136
(Firearms are allowed for permitted hunting. See footnote for more details)
Prohibited
Prohibited
New Mexico137
(Loaded firearms. See footnote for exceptions)
Allowed
(CCW permittees only)
Allowed
(Unloaded firearms only)
New York138
(Firearms are allowed for permitted hunting)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Pennsylvania139Prohibited (Exceptions for hunting and keeping a firearm at a leased campsite, among others)
Prohibited (Exceptions for hunting and keeping a firearm at a leased campsite, among others)
Tennessee140Allowed
Likely Prohibited
Virginia141Allowed
Likely Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in State Wildlife Management Areas / Wildlife Preserves or Refuges
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama142
(People with permits to carry in parks are allowed)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Minnesota143
(Firearms are allowed for permitted hunting. See footnote for more details)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Montana144Prohibited
Prohibited
Nebraska145
(Firearms allowed for specially permitted hunting)
Prohibited
Prohibited
New Mexico146
(Firearms are allowed with a permit issued by the agency director)
Prohibited
Prohibited
North Dakota147Prohibited
Prohibited
Tennessee148
(Firearms are allowed during hunting season)
Allowed
Prohibited
(CCW permittees may be allowed)
Vermont149Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin150
(Firearms stored unloaded and encased are allowed)
Allowed
Prohibited

Private Property Open to the Public

Many states restrict carrying firearms in certain types of private property where conflict may be likely, such as bars, or in places like banks, houses of worship, or polling places where firearms may raise additional concerns. Two states restrict carry in banks. Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia restrict carrying firearms in at least some establishments that serve alcohol. Twelve states and DC restrict the carry of firearms in houses of worship. Twelve states and DC place at least some restrictions on carrying firearms at polling places.

States that Prohibit Firearms in Banks
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Michigan151Allowed
Prohibited
Nebraska152Prohibited
Allowed
States that Prohibit Firearms in Bars or Restaurants Serving Alcohol
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alaska153Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas154Allowed*
Allowed
Arizona155
(See our page Other Location Restrictions in Arizona for more information)
May be allowed
Prohibited
District of Columbia156Prohibited
Prohibited157
Florida158Prohibited
Prohibited159
Illinois160
(See footnote for more detail)
Allowed*
Prohibited161
(CCW permittees are allowed to have their gun partially exposed)
Kentucky162
(Loaded firearms. See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Louisiana163
(See footnote for more detail)
Allowed*
Prohibited
Maine164
Allowed (unless notice is posted)
Prohibited
Michigan165Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi166
(See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Allowed
Missouri167
(See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Allowed
Montana168Prohibited
Allowed
New Mexico169Allowed*
Prohibited
Nebraska 170
(See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Allowed
North Carolina171
(See footnote for more detail)
Allowed
Prohibited
North Dakota172
(Areas off-limits to people under 21)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Ohio173Allowed
Prohibited
Oklahoma174
(See footnote for more detail)
Allowed*
Allowed*
South Carolina175Allowed
Allowed
South Dakota176
(See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Texas177
Allowed*
Allowed*
Virginia178Allowed
Allowed
Washington179
(Places off-limit to people under 21)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin180Allowed
Prohibited
(CCW permittees may be allowed)
Wyoming181
(See footnote for more detail)
Prohibited
Allowed
In states with an *, firearms are allowed in certain restaurants but not in bars.
Many of these states exempt CCW permittees from the ban on carrying firearms in bars and restaurants. Generally, however, these states also prohibit a person carrying a firearm from consuming alcohol while carrying.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Places of Worship
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Arkansas182Prohibited
Allowed
District of Columbia183Prohibited
Prohibited184
Georgia185Prohibited (unless the governing body or authority of the place of worship permits lawful weapons carriers to carry firearms on their premises)
Prohibited (unless the governing body or authority of the place of worship permits lawful weapons carriers to carry firearms on their premises)
Louisiana186Prohibited
Allowed
Michigan187Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi188Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Missouri189Prohibited
Allowed
North Dakota190Prohibited (Without approval from place of worship)
Prohibited (Without approval from place of worship)
Nebraska191
(Security personnel are allowed)
Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Ohio192Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
South Carolina193Prohibited
Allowed (Long guns only)
Utah194Allowed (Unless there is effective notice of prohibition)
Allowed
(Unless there is effective notice of prohibition)
Virginia195
(See footnote for further discussion)
Allowed*
Allowed*
Although these states prohibit firearms in houses of worship, some allow the governing body of the institution to grant general or specific permission to individuals to carry on its property.
States that Prohibit Firearms in Polling Places
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Arizona196Prohibited
Prohibited
California197Prohibited
Prohibited
District of Columbia198Prohibited
Prohibited199
Florida200Prohibited
Prohibited201
Georgia202Prohibited
Prohibited
Louisiana203Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi204Prohibited
Allowed
Missouri205Prohibited
Allowed
Nebraska206Prohibited
Allowed
Ohio207Prohibited (only for poll observers)
Prohibited
(only for poll observers)
South Carolina208Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Texas209Prohibited
Prohibited
Virginia210Prohibited
Prohibited
Additional restrictions may apply to polling places held in school buildings. See our page on Guns in Schools for possible additional restrictions. See also the ‘Government Buildings and Meetings’ section above for possible additional restrictions.

Healthcare and Childcare Facilities

The carrying of firearms is prohibited in K-12 schools in most states across the country, many states have gone further and prohibited carrying firearms in other areas where children are frequently present. Ten states and DC prohibit carrying firearms in at least some childcare facilities.

States have also taken steps to restrict the carry of firearms in healthcare facilities to ensure the safety of patients and caregivers. Seven states restrict carry in all hospitals, and 12 states restrict carry in at least some facilities providing mental health care.

States that Prohibit Firearms in Day Care and Childcare Facilities
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alaska211
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Prohibited
District of Columbia212Prohibited
Prohibited213
Illinois214
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Kentucky215Prohibited
Allowed
Michigan216Prohibited
Prohibited
Missouri217
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Allowed
Nevada218
(See footnote for exceptions)
Prohibited
Allowed
South Carolina219Prohibited
Allowed220
(Long guns only)
Virginia221Prohibited
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in Residential Childcare Facilities
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Idaho222Prohibited
Prohibited
Indiana223Prohibited
Prohibited
Michigan224Prohibited
Allowed
New York225
(Applies only to employees, volunteers, and consultants)
Prohibited
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in Hospitals
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Illinois226
(Includes nursing homes)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Michigan227Prohibited
Prohibited
Missouri228

Montana229
Prohibited



Prohibited
Allowed



Allowed
Nebraska230Prohibited
Allowed
Oregon231Allowed
Prohibited
(CCW permittees may be allowed)
South Carolina232Prohibited
Allowed
(Long guns only)
Texas233Prohibited
(Unless with written authorization from hospital admin.)
Prohibited
(Unless with written authorization from hospital admin.)
Vermont (effective July 1 ,2022) 234Prohibited
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in Mental Health Facilities
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama235
(Inpatient facilities)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Florida236Prohibited
Prohibited237
Georgia238
(State facilities that admit individuals involuntarily)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Illinois239Prohibited
Prohibited
Minnesota240
(Certain state mental health hospitals)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi241
(Certain state mental health hospitals)
Prohibited
Prohibited
New York242Prohibited
Prohibited
Ohio243Prohibited
Prohibited
Utah244
(Secure areas)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Texas245Prohibited
Prohibited
Washington246
(Secure areas)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Wisconsin247
(Secure areas)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Wyoming248
(Certain state mental health hospitals)
Prohibited
Prohibited

Entertainment Facilities and other large gatherings

Despite the rhetoric of the gun lobby, guns in public make people more likely to be shot. In large gatherings of people, especially when emotions and tensions flare, the risk of violence increases when people are armed. A 2021 study found that demonstrations involving at least one armed individual tend to be violent or destructive 16% of the time and armed demonstrations are nearly six times as likely to turn violent or destructive compared to unarmed demonstrations. The study also found that armed protests account for less than 2% of the total number of demonstrations in the US, yet they account for 10% of all violent or destructive demonstrations.249 Similarly, in amusement parks, sports venues, and other areas where large numbers of people congregate and emotions tend to run high, the presence of guns poses great risks.

Many states have taken steps to protect their residents by restricting the carry of firearms in these areas. Three states restrict carry in amusement parks. Twelve states and DC restrict carry of firearms in athletic events, stadiums or arenas. Five states restrict carry in areas where gambling is taking place. Eight states and DC restrict at least some forms of firearm carry at demonstrations and protests.

States that Prohibit Firearms in Amusement Parks
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Illinois250Prohibited
Prohibited
Missouri251Prohibited
Allowed
Texas252Prohibited
Prohibited
States that Prohibit Firearms in Athletic Events / Stadiums or Arenas
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama253Allowed
Prohibited
Arkansas254Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Allowed
District of Columbia255Prohibited
Prohibited256
Florida257Prohibited
Prohibited258
Illinois259
(Public events where admission is charged)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Michigan260Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi261Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees are allowed)
Allowed
Missouri262Prohibited
Allowed
Nebraska263Prohibited
Allowed
Oklahoma264
(Firearms prohibited in any publicly owned or operated arena or venue during a professional sporting event, unless allowed by the event holder)
Prohibited (without permission)
Prohibited (without permission)
South Carolina265
(School or college athletic events)
Prohibited
Allowed266
(Long guns only)
Texas267Prohibited
Prohibited
Wyoming 268Prohibited
Allowed
States that Prohibit Firearms in Bingo Halls and Gambling Facilities
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Illinois269Prohibited
Prohibited
Indiana270Prohibited
Prohibited
Missouri271
(Riverboat gambling)
Prohibited
Allowed
North Dakota272
(Bingo halls)
Prohibited
Prohibited
Oklahoma273
(Firearms allowed only with permission of owner)
Prohibited (without permission)
Prohibited (without permission)
States that Prohibit Firearms at Demonstrations, Protests, or Licensed Public Gatherings
StateConcealed Carry
Open Carry
Alabama274Prohibited
Prohibited
Arkansas275
(Applies only to participants in permitted demonstrations)
Prohibited
Allowed
District of Columbia276Prohibited
Prohibited277
Illinois278Prohibited
Prohibited
Louisiana279
(Permitted demonstrations or parades)
Prohibited
Allowed
Maryland280Prohibited
Prohibited
Mississippi281
(Permitted demonstrations or parades)
Prohibited
(Enhanced CCW permittees can carry)
Allowed
Nebraska282Prohibited
Allowed
North Carolina283Prohibited
Prohibited
Washington284Allowed
Prohibited

Outdoor Music Festivals

Washington prohibits concealed and open carry at outdoor music festivals.285

Private Property

Recognizing the sanctity of private property rights in the American legal system, state and local governments generally give private property owners the ability to determine whether guns are allowed on their personal and commercial properties.

Some states, however, have begun chipping away at the rights of owners to exclude guns from their properties if the properties are commercial or open to the public. States have encroached on private property rights by either requiring property owners to allow employees or customers to store their firearms in cars parked on the owner’s parking lot, or by immunizing property owners from liability for acts committed with firearms on their properties only if the owner allows firearms.

Parking Lots

In addition to requiring private property owners to allow employees or customers to store guns in their vehicles in the owner’s parking lots, many of the states listed below also require private property owners who wish to exclude guns from their properties to post notice of the exclusion according to specifications.286

States that Require Property Owners to Allow the Storage of Guns in Cars in their Parking Lots
StateEveryone can store guns in vehicles in parking lotsPeople with concealed carry permits can store guns in vehicles in parking lots
Employees can store guns in vehicles in parking lots
Alabama287
Yes
Alaska288Yes
Arizona289Yes
Arkansas290Yes
Yes
Florida291Yes
Georgia292
Yes
Illinois293Yes
Indiana294
Yes
Kansas295
Yes
Kentucky296Yes
Louisiana297Yes (with some exceptions)
Maine298
Only those with CCW permits
Minnesota299Yes
Mississippi300Yes (does not apply in parking lots with restricted access)
Missouri301
State employees only
Nebraska302Yes
North Carolina303Yes
North Dakota304Yes
Ohio305Yes
Oklahoma306Yes
Tennessee307YesYes
Yes
Texas308
Yes
Utah309Yes
Virginia310
Localities cannot prohibit employees from storing firearms in vehicles.
West Virginia311Yes
Wisconsin312Yes

Civil Liability Immunity as an Incentive to Allow Guns

In order to incentivize property owners to allow guns, some states have passed laws immunizing property owners from liability for any harms resulting from guns being allowed on their property.

  • Idaho (Employers who allow firearms in vehicles are immune)313
  • Kansas (A property owner who allows concealed handguns or provides adequate signage and security to prevent the unauthorized carrying of concealed handguns is immune from liability for any wrongful act or omission relating to the use of such handguns)314
  • Oklahoma315
  • Tennessee316
  • Texas317

Key Legislative Elements

  • The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.
  • All individuals are prohibited from carrying firearms in areas where the presence of guns is particularly dangerous or likely to have the effect of chilling free expression and free speech, such as in polling places, hospitals, government meetings, and courthouses.
  • Resist the expansion of, or repeal, laws that require property owners to allow guns on privately-owned properties or that waive civil liability for property owners as an incentive to allow guns on private property.

  1. Louis Klarevas, Rampage Nation: Securing America from Mass Shootings (Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 2016).[]
  2. 18 USC § 930(a), (g)(1). The prohibition does not extend to “the lawful carrying of firearms or other dangerous weapons in a Federal facility incident to hunting or other lawful purposes.” § 930(d); see also https://www.dhs.gov/faq-regarding-items-prohibited-federal-property.[]
  3. 39 CFR § 232.1; Bonidy v. United States Postal Serv., 790 F.3d 1121.[]
  4. 49 CFR §§ 1540.111, 1540.5.[]
  5. 49 USC § 46505.[]
  6. 40 USC § 5104(e)(1)(A).[]
  7. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(A).[]
  8. 18 U.S.C. § 921(a)(25)-(26).[]
  9. 18 U.S.C. § 922(q)(2)(A).[]
  10. 48 Fed. Reg. 30, 252 (June 30, 1983), codified at 36 C.F.R. § 2.4(a)(2) and 49 Fed. Reg. 18,444 (April 30, 1984), codified at 50 C.F.R. § 27.42(e).[]
  11. 73 Fed. Reg. 74,966, 74,972 (Dec. 10, 2008), amending 36 C.F.R. § 2.4, 50 C.F.R. § 27.42.[]
  12. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306.[]
  13. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-130.2.[]
  14. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(19).[]
  15. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 45-9-101(13), 97-37-7(2).[]
  16. 2021 HB 102, amending Title 45, Chapter 8, Part 3.[]
  17. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 202.3673.[]
  18. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.370(1)(b). A person may possesses a firearm in the passenger terminal of a commercial service airport if the firearm is unloaded and in a locked hard-sided container for the purposes of transporting the firearm as checked baggage in accordance with federal law. Id. at (3)(k).[]
  19. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-287.01.[]
  20. Ala. Code § 13A-11-61.2(a)(4). This prohibition includes the District Attorney office building.[]
  21. Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-122 (a)(3)(D).[]
  22. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a)(4)(B).[]
  23. Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-122 (a)(3)(D).[]
  24. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12).[]
  25. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  26. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127(b).[]
  27. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(c)(1.5), 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 66/65.[]
  28. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.110(16).[]
  29. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N).[]
  30. Me. Rev. Stat., tit. 17-A, § 1058(1), (2).[]
  31. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.234d(1)(c), (2)(c).[]
  32. Minn. Stat. § 609.66, subd. 1g(a).[]
  33. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 45-9-101(13), 97-37-7(2).[]
  34. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(4).[]
  35. 2021 HB 102, amending Title 45 Chapter 8 Part 3.[]
  36. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 159:19(I).[]
  37. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 29-19-11.[]
  38. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  39. Nev. Admin. Code § 202.020(1)(3).[]
  40. (N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-415.11(c), § 14-269.4.[]
  41. Ohio Rev. Code §§ 2923.123.[]
  42. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21 § 1277(A)(2).[]
  43. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.370(2).[]
  44. 18 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. § 913.[]
  45. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M).[]
  46. S.D. Codified Laws § 22-14-23.[]
  47. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1306(a).[]
  48. Tex. Penal Code § 46.03 (a)(3).[]
  49. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 13, § 4016(b).[]
  50. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-283.1.[]
  51. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.300(1).[]
  52. W. Va. Code § 61-7-11a(g)(1).[]
  53. Wis. Stat. § 175.60(16).[]
  54. Wyo. Stat. § 6-5-209. Firearms are allowed in courtrooms with permission from the presiding judge.[]
  55. Cal. Penal Code § 171b (a)(1).[]
  56. A narrow exception exists for those with open carry licenses: Where the population of the county is less than 200,000 persons according to the most recent federal decennial census, a license to carry loaded and exposed in only that county a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of being concealed upon the person. Cal. Penal Code § 26150.[]
  57. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(3), (5), (18).[]
  58. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 75-7c20(a), (b), (m).[]
  59. Nev. Admin. Code § 202.020(1)(6).[]
  60. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-05(1).[]
  61. Ohio Rev. Code § 2923.126(B)(7). Does not apply to a building that is used primarily as a shelter, restroom, parking facility, or rest facility.[]
  62. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21 § 1277(A)(1).[]
  63. Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 166.370 (1), (3)(d); § 166.360[]
  64. S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-420(A).[]
  65. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-283.2.[]
  66. Wis. Stat. § 941.235(1).[]
  67. Ala. Code § 13A-11-61.2(a)(1).[]
  68. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306.[]
  69. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12)(2).[]
  70. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  71. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.110(16).[]
  72. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N)(1).[]
  73. Miss. Code. Ann. §97-37-7(2).[]
  74. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(1).[]
  75. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-415.11(c).[]
  76. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441(1)(a).[]
  77. Nev. Admin. Code § 202.020(1)(1).[]
  78. Ohio Rev. Code § 2923.126(B)(1).[]
  79. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M).[]
  80. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.300(1)(a).[]
  81. Wis. Stat. § 175.60(16)(a)(1).[]
  82. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-104(t)(i).[]
  83. Ala. Code § 13A-11-61.2.[]
  84. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306.[]
  85. Cal. Penal Code § 171b (a)(1), (b)(3).[]
  86. A narrow exception exists for those with open carry licenses: Where the population of the county is less than 200,000 persons according to the most recent federal decennial census, a license to carry loaded and exposed in only that county a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of being concealed upon the person. Cal. Penal Code § 26150.[]
  87. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12).[]
  88. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  89. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.110(16)(d).[]
  90. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(5).[]
  91. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441(1)(a).[]
  92. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M).[]
  93. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(14); 46.035(c). (While Penal Code Section 46.15(b)exempts CCW license holders from the general restriction, Section 46.035(c) makes it unlawful for a license holder to carry a handgun in the room where an open government meeting is held if specified notices are provided).[]
  94. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-104(t)(iv).[]
  95. Cal. Penal Code § 171c(a).[]
  96. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12).[]
  97. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  98. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.110(16)(d).[]
  99. Miss. Code Ann. §§ 45-9-101(13); 97-37-7(2).[]
  100. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(5).[]
  101. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441(1)(a).[]
  102. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(14); 46.035(c). (While Penal Code Section 46.15(b)exempts CCW license holders from the general restriction, Section 46.035(c) makes it unlawful for a license holder to carry a handgun in the room where an open government meeting is held if specified notices are provided).[]
  103. 2021 WA SB 5038.[]
  104. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-104(t).[]
  105. Cal. Penal Code § 171.7.[]
  106. A narrow exception exists for those with open carry licenses: “Where the population of the county is less than 200,000 persons according to the most recent federal decennial census, a license to carry loaded and exposed in only that county a pistol, revolver, or other firearm capable of being concealed upon the person. Cal. Penal Code § 26150.[]
  107. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-9-118.[]
  108. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(a)(6).[]
  109. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  110. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(c)(1.5),  430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(8).[]
  111. 2011 Alabama OHJR 9.[]
  112. Ark. Code Ann. §§ 5-73-122 (a)(1), 5-73-322(h).[]
  113. Cal. Penal Code § 171c.[]
  114. Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-12-105.[]
  115. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 2-1e(c).[]
  116. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(a)(1), (10).[]
  117. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  118. Idaho Executive Order No. 2004-07.[]
  119. Iowa Code § 8A.322(3).[]
  120. Minn. Stat. § 609.66, subd. 1g(a).[]
  121. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N).[]
  122. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13).[]
  123. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-328.[]
  124. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-415.11(c), 14-269.4.[]
  125. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 218A.905(8).[]
  126. Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 166.370(1); 166.262(1).[]
  127. S.C. Code Ann. § 10-11-320.[]
  128. S.D. Codified Laws §§ 22-14-23, 22-14-24(5).[]
  129. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-283.2.[]
  130. 2021 WA SB 5038.[]
  131. W. Va. Code § 61-6-19(b).[]
  132. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 51-3-145(G); 23-31-210 (defining “concealable firearm” as one that may be carried openly). Does not apply in designated game management areas.[]
  133. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21 § 1277(E). This applies to parks that are managed by public trust or a nonprofit entity.[]
  134. Cal. Code Regs. tit. 14, § 4313. Hunting is exempt. Unloaded weapons stored in temporary lodging or conveyance are exempt when stored in a manner that will prevent their ready use.[]
  135. Me. Stat., 17-A § 1057.[]
  136. Minn. Stat. § 97A.091, subd.1(1). Does not apply to unloaded firearms that are broken down or stored in a case. When allowed by the commissioner, firearms used for hunting are exempt from this prohibition.[]
  137. N.M. Code R. § 19.5.2.21. Exceptions to the general prohibition include: Licensed hunters during hunting season in designated areas and firearms carried in a private means of conveyance for lawful protection.[]
  138. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. .9, § 375.1(p).[]
  139. 17 Pa. Code § 11.215(4).[]
  140. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1311[]
  141. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-287.4[]
  142. Ala. Code § 9-11-304.[]
  143. Minn. Stat. § 97A.091, subd.1(1). Does not apply to unloaded firearms that are broken down or stored in a case. When allowed by the commissioner, firearms used for hunting are exempt from this prohibition.[]
  144. Mont. Code Ann. § 87-5-401.[]
  145. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 37-708(b), 37-712. Those traveling through on the highway or in trains are exempt. Those with special hunting permits are exempt.[]
  146. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 17-2-12.[]
  147. N.D. Cent. Code § 20.1-11-13(3).[]
  148. Tenn. Code Ann. § 70-4-117(a).[]
  149. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 10, § 5204, 5226(c).[]
  150. Wis. Stat. § 29.089(2), 29.091.[]
  151. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 750.234d(1).[]
  152. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441(a).[]
  153. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a)(2).[]
  154. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306(11). Arkansas also bans weapons in establishments that sell alcohol for consumption off premises Ark. Code Ann. § 3-4-403(21).[]
  155. Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 4-229(A), 4-244(29)-(30).[]
  156. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(a)(7).[]
  157. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  158. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12)(a)(12).[]
  159. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  160. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(8), 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(9). CCW permittees can only carry in restaurants that earn less than 50% of their income from alcohol.[]
  161. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/10(c)(1).[]
  162. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 244.125(1). This restriction does not apply in restaurants that seat at least 50 and earn at least 50% of their income from food.[]
  163. La. Rev. Stat. § 14:95.5. CCW permittees may only carry in restaurants with a class A restaurant permit.[]
  164. Me. Stat., 17-A § 1057(1).[]
  165. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.425o(1), 750.234d.[]
  166. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13). This prohibition applies to areas within an establishment which are primarily devoted to the service of alcohol.[]
  167. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(7). Concealed carry permit holders are exempt from this prohibition in restaurants that can seat at least 50, and earn at least 51% of their income from food.[]
  168. Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-328[]
  169. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 30-7-3(A).[]
  170. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  171. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-269.3.[]
  172. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-04.[]
  173. Ohio Rev. Code §§ 2923.121(B)(1)(e), 2923.126(B)(4).[]
  174. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21, § 1272.1; 2021 OK HB 646. Oklahoma amended its law in 2021, effective November 1, 2021, to repeal provisions that previously generally restricted people without valid handgun licenses from carrying firearms in any establishment where alcoholic beverages are consumed. The law passed in 2021 affirmatively states that it is lawful for a person to carry or possess firearms, whether openly or concealed, in any restaurant or other establishment licensed to dispense alcoholic beverages where the sale of alcoholic beverages does not constitute the primary purpose of the business, although the law also states that it shall not be interpreted to authorize any person in actual physical possession of a weapon to consume alcoholic beverages in such an establishment.

    The new law prohibits people from carrying or possessing a firearm in any establishment where the sale of alcoholic beverages constitutes the primary purpose of the business, unless they are the owner or proprietor of the establishment or are an employee who has permission from the owner or proprietor to carry or possess a weapon in the scope and course of their employment.[]
  175. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 16-23-465; 23-31-210 (defining “concealable firearm” as one that may be carried openly).[]
  176. S.D. Codified Laws § 23-7-70. This prohibition includes establishments where alcohol is sold for consumption off the premises.[]
  177. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(7); 46.035(b)(1). Texas law generally prohibits people from carrying firearms of any type on the premises of a bar or restaurant that has a liquor license, if the business makes at least 51% of its income from the sale or service of alcoholic beverages for on-premises consumption. Texas generally prohibits open carry of handguns in public spaces as well, unless the handgun is carried in a holster; open carry of long guns is generally permitted, subject to the restriction on firearms in liquor establishments that derive at least 51% of their income from on-beverage alcohol consumption.[]
  178. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.012[]
  179. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.300(1).[]
  180. Wis. Stat. § 941.237(2).[]
  181. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-104(t)(vii).The prohibition applies to areas of establishments primarily devoted to dispensing alcohol.[]
  182. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306(15).[]
  183. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(b).[]
  184. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  185. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127(b)(4).[]
  186. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N)(8).[]
  187. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. §§ 28.425o(1)(e), 750.234d(1).[]
  188. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13).[]
  189. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(14). Firearms stored in vehicles are exempt.[]
  190. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-05(1), (2)(l). The primary religious leader or governing body of a place of worship may approve an individual or group of individuals to carry firearms “through a policy or any other means,” if such individuals have a CCW permit or are otherwise eligible to carry handguns under North Dakota’s permitless carry law.[]
  191. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441(a), (c). The governing body can only grant permission to carry firearms to security personnel who have concealed carry licenses. If the place of worship allows armed security, they must provide written notice to the congregation.[]
  192. Ohio Rev. Code § 2923.126(B)(6).[]
  193. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M); S.C. Code Ann. § 16-23-20(12).[]
  194. Utah Code Ann. §§ 76-10-530, 53-5-710.[]
  195. While Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-283 prohibits firearms in houses of worship absent a “good and sufficient reason,” a controlling opinion of the attorney general states that carrying a weapon for personal protection constitutes a good and sufficient reason 2011 Va. AG LEXIS 23.[]
  196. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3102(A)(11).[]
  197. Cal. Elec. Code § 18544(a).[]
  198. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(5).[]
  199. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  200. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(12)(6).[]
  201. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  202. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-27(b)(7).[]
  203. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N)(4); § 18:1461.7(c)(3).[]
  204. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13).[]
  205. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(2).[]
  206. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  207. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 3505.21.[]
  208. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M)(3).[]
  209. Tex. Penal Code § 46.03(a)(2).[]
  210. Va. Code Ann. §§ 24.2-604(a); 24.2-671; 24.2-802.1.[]
  211. Alaska Stat. § 11.61.220(a)(4)(A). Firearms enclosed in the trunk of or in a closed container contained within a motor vehicle are exempt if the person in possession of the firearm(s) is 21 or over.[]
  212. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(a)(2).[]
  213. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  214. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(2). Includes parking areas. The operator of a childcare facility in a family home may own or possess a firearm if no child under child care at the home is present in the home or if the firearm in the home is stored in a locked container when a child under childcare at the home is present.[]
  215. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.110(16).[]
  216. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. §§ 28.425o(1), 750.234d(1). []
  217. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(11). Operators of childcare facilities in a family home are exempt.[]
  218. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 202.3673, 202.265. The owners of childcare facilities are exempt if they reside in the home and follow all applicable firearms laws.[]
  219. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M)(6).[]
  220. S.C. Code Ann. §§ 16-23-20, 23-31-217.[]
  221. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.1 .[]
  222. Idaho Admin. Code r. 16.06.02.734.[]
  223. 465 Ind. Admin. Code 2-9-80(b)(3), 2-10-79(b)(3) , 2-11-80(b)(3), 2-12-78(b)(3), 2-13-77(b)(3).[]
  224. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.425o(1)(b).[]
  225. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 18, § 441.19(f).[]
  226. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(7).[]
  227. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. §§ 28.425o(1), 750.234d(1) .[]
  228. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1 (17). Firearms are allowed in vehicles on premises.[]
  229. 2021 HB 102, amending Title 45, Chapter 8, Part 3.[]
  230. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  231. Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.370.[]
  232. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M).[]
  233. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(11); 46.035(b)(4).[]
  234. 13 V.S.A. § 4023 (added by 2022 VT SB 4).[]
  235. Ala. Code § 13A-11-61.2(3).[]
  236. Fla. Stat. § 394.458.[]
  237. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  238. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-127(b)(5).[]
  239. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(7).[]
  240. Minn. Stat. § 243.55, subd. 1.[]
  241. Miss. Code Ann. § 41-19-261(c).[]
  242. N.Y. Comp. Codes R. & Regs. tit. 14, §§ 542.5(a), 45.1.[]
  243. Ohio Rev. Code § 2923.126(B)(1).[]
  244. Utah Code Ann. § 76-8-311.3(4)(d).[]
  245. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(1), (a)(12); 46.035(b)(4), (b)(6).[]
  246. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. §§ 9.41.300(1)(c), 72.23.300.[]
  247. Wis. Stat. § 175.60(16)(5).[]
  248. Wyo. Stat. § 6-5-209.[]
  249. Everytown for Gun Safety Support Fund and the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project, “Armed Assembly: Guns, Demonstrations, and Political Violence in America,” Aug. 23, 2021, https://everytownresearch.org/report/armed-assembly-guns-demonstrations-and-political-violence-in-america/.[]
  250. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(20).[]
  251. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(13). Firearms are allowed if secured in a vehicle.[]
  252. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(13); 46.035(b)(5).[]
  253. Ala. Code § 13A-11-61.2(a)(5),(6).[]
  254. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306.[]
  255. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07(8).[]
  256. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  257. Fla. Stat. § 790.06(9).[]
  258. Fla. Stat. § 790.053(1).[]
  259. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(8), A more specific prohibition on carrying firearms in stadiums and at athletic events applies to concealed carry permittees: 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65 (a)(17).[]
  260. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. §§ 750.234d(1), 28.425o(1)(c). The section restricting concealed carry prohibits only concealed handguns. An additional restriction in this section prohibits concealed handguns at ‘entertainment facilities’ with a capacity of at least 2,500.[]
  261. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13).[]
  262. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(16). Firearms stored in vehicles are exempt.[]
  263. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  264. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21 § 1277(A)(4).[]
  265. S.C. Code Ann. § 23-31-215(M)(5).[]
  266. See our page on Guns in Schools for more information.[]
  267. Tex. Penal Code §§ 46.03(a)(8); 46.035(b)(2).[]
  268. Wyo. Stat. § 6-8-104(t).[]
  269. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 66/65(a)(16).[]
  270. 68 Ind. Admin. Code 1-7-1.[]
  271. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.107.1(12). Guns stored in vehicles are exempt.[]
  272. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-04.[]
  273. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 21 § 1277(A).[]
  274. Ala. Code § 13A-11-59.[]
  275. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306 (17).[]
  276. D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2509.07 (a) (14).[]
  277. D.C. Code Ann. § 22-4504(a).[]
  278. 720 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/24-1(a)(8).[]
  279. La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(N).[]
  280. Md. Code Ann., Crim. Law § 4-208.[]
  281. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-101(13).[]
  282. Neb. Rev. Stat. § 69-2441.[]
  283. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-277.2.[]
  284. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.300 as amended by 2021 WA SB 5038.[]
  285. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 70.108.150.[]
  286. See, Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 69-2441(2).[]
  287. Ala. Code § 13A-11-90(b).[]
  288. Alaska Stat. § 18.65.800(a).[]
  289. Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 12-781(A).[]
  290. Ark. Code Ann. § 5-73-306(18)(B); 11-5-117.[]
  291. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.251(4)(a).[]
  292. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-135(b).[]
  293. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 66/65(a-10), (b).[]
  294. Ind. Code Ann. § 35-47-2-1(d)(2).[]
  295. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 75-7c10(b)(1).[]
  296. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 237.106(1).[]
  297. La. Rev. Stat. §§ 32:292.1(A), (B), (C). If possession of a firearm on the property is otherwise prohibited by state or federal law, then firearms are still prohibited in parking lots. Private parking lots can restrict gun in cars if they restrict general access to the parking lot and provide other alternatives for firearm storage or parking.[]
  298. Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 26, § 600(1).[]
  299. Minn. Stat. §§ 624.714, subd. 17(c), (d).[]
  300. Miss. Code Ann. § 45-9-55(1), (2).[]
  301. Mo. Rev. Stat. § 571.030(6).[]
  302. Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 69-2441(3). Does not apply in parking areas for zones where carrying a gun is federally prohibited.[]
  303. N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-269.2(k), 14-269.4(6).[]
  304. N.D. Cent. Code § 62.1-02-13(1)(a).[]
  305. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §§ 2923.1210(A).[]
  306. Okla. Stat. tit. 21, §§ 1290.22(B), 1277(B).[]
  307. Tenn. Code Ann. §§ 39-17-1313, 50-1-312(b).[]
  308. Tex. Lab. Code § 52.061. See also, Tex. Educ. Code § 37.0815.[]
  309. Utah Code Ann. § 34-45-103. Firearms can be prohibited in parking areas if the proprietor provides gun storage or an alternative parking location within a reasonable distance.[]
  310. Va. Code Ann. § 15.2-915(A).[]
  311. W. Va. Code §§ 8-12-5a(c)(3), 61-7-14(d).[]
  312. Wis. Stat. § 943.13(1m)(c).[]
  313. Idaho Code § 5-341.[]
  314. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 75-7c10(c).[]
  315. Okla. Stat. tit. 21, § 1290.22(F).[]
  316. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1325.[]
  317. Tex. Lab. Code § 52.063.[]