Skip to Main Content

Licensing laws are safety measures proven to promote safe gun ownership and reduce gun deaths. 

Gun licensing has been proven to reduce gun violence and trafficking, and it remains a necessary component to crafting comprehensive, lifesaving gun laws. Licensing laws are an effective way to make sure guns are only purchased and used by responsible Americans, and yet just a handful of states have these laws in place.


Licensing laws ensure that gun owners have passed a background check before they purchase a gun. In contrast to states which require a background check at the point of sale of a firearm, licensing laws typically require an in-person application at law enforcement agencies, which provides an additional safeguard against fraud or inaccuracies that could allow dangerous individuals to obtain guns.

Decrease in gun homicide rate with licensing
When Connecticut passed a licensing law, its gun homicide rate decreased by 28% and its gun suicide rate decreased by 33%


Alexander D. McCourt, et al, “Purchaser Licensing, Point-of-Sale Background Check Laws, and Firearm Homicide and Suicide in 4 US States, 1985–2017,” American Journal of Public Health 110, no. 10 (2020): 1546-1552.

Licensing laws that require periodic renewal can also reduce gun crimes by helping law enforcement confirm that a gun owner remains eligible to possess firearms and facilitating the removal of firearms from people who become ineligible. Furthermore, licensing laws can help to empower safe and responsible gun ownership. Many states will only issue or renew license after an applicant has completed a safety training course and firearm safety tests showing that the applicant knows relevant gun laws and how to safely load, fire, and store a gun.

Studies show that these attributes of licensing laws can lead to significant reductions in many forms of gun violence, including gun homicides and gun suicides.

  • When Connecticut passed a licensing law, its firearm homicide rate decreased by 28%1 and its firearm suicide rate decreased by 33%.2
  • Conversely, when Missouri repealed its licensing law, its firearm homicide rate increased by 47%3 and its firearm suicide rate increased by 24%.4
  • A study of licensing laws across 80 large urban counties found that these laws are associated with an 11% decrease in firearm homicides.5
  • Licensing laws that require an in-person application or fingerprinting also help prevent mass shootings. States with these laws have 56% fewer fatal mass shootings.6
  • States with licensing laws experience a 28% lower rate of police shootings compared to states without this policy.7

Licensing laws also help to prevent gun trafficking and the diversion of guns to criminals.

  • In places with licensing laws, criminals typically acquire guns that originate from states with weaker laws.8
  • After Missouri repealed its licensing law, the share of crime guns that originated from an in-state retail transaction doubled.9
  • States with strong licensing laws were associated with 76% lower rates of gun exported to criminals.10

Public opinion polls show that Americans strongly support licensing laws. A 2019 survey found that 77% of Americans support a law requiring a person to obtain a license from local law enforcement before buying a gun.11 This support includes more than two-thirds of gun owners (68%).12

Summary of Federal Law

Federal law does not require licensing of gun owners or purchasers.

For information about the exemption that federal law provides for certain license holders to the background check required when a firearm is purchased from a licensed dealer, see our summary on Background Check Procedures.

Summary of State Law

In general, state licensing laws fall into four categories: (1) permits to purchase firearms, (2) licenses to own firearms, (3) firearm safety certificates, which indicate that the certificate-holder has completed required safety training, and (4) registration laws that impose licensing requirements.13

  • “Permit to purchase”: Twelve states have enacted permit to purchase licensing laws that require people who wish to acquire firearms to obtain a permit or license before buying at least some firearms.
  • “License to own”: Three states—Illinois, Massachusetts, and New York—require a license to own firearms (New York’s law applies to handguns and semiautomatic rifles). Unlike a permit to purchase, a license to own a firearm must remain valid for as long as the person owns the firearm.
  • Firearm Safety Certificate: Two states—California and Washington—require prospective firearm purchasers to first obtain a certificate showing that they have completed required firearm safety training. California requires this for all firearms, Washington requires it only for semiautomatic rifles.
  • Registration: One jurisdiction—the District of Columbia—has a registration law that also functions as a license requirement.

Any of these forms of licensing laws can be used to impose a background check requirement, or (like California’s firearm safety certificate) they can be used to supplement a separate background check system. See our summary on Universal Background Checks for further information. Permits to purchase, licenses to own, firearm safety certificates, and registration requirements can also be used to ensure that firearm owners or purchasers have undergone adequate safety training or testing.

State Laws Governing Licensing of Gun Owners or Purchasers

State Licensing Requirements for Gun Purchase or Possession
StateType of FirearmsType of LicenseSafety Training or Exam Requirement
California14All firearmsFirearms Safety CertificateYes
5 years15
Connecticut16All firearmsPermit to purchaseYes
5 years
Delaware 17HandgunsPermit to purchaseYes
2 years
District of Columbia18All firearmsRegistrationYes
So long as eligible
Hawaii19All firearmsPermit to purchaseYes (handguns)

No (long guns)
10 days

1 Year
Illinois20All firearmsLicense to ownNo
10 years
Maryland21HandgunsPermit to purchaseYes
10 years
Massachusetts22All firearms and ammunition devicesLicense to own

Permit to purchase (handguns only)

6 years

10 days
Michigan23All firearms24Permit to purchase25No
30 days
Minnesota26Handguns and assault weapons from private sellersPermit to purchaseNo
1 year
Nebraska27HandgunsPermit to purchaseNo
3 years
New Jersey28All firearmsPermit to purchase29Yes
So long as eligible (long guns)

90 days (handguns)30
New York31Handguns and semiautomatic riflesLicense to purchase and ownNo
5 years
Oregon32All firearmsPermit to purchaseYes
5 years
Rhode Island 33Handguns Permit to purchase Yes
Washington  34Semiautomatic rifles Firearms safety certification Yes
5 years


We’re in this together. To build a safer America—one where children and parents in every neighborhood can learn, play, work, and worship without fear of gun violence—we need you standing beside us in this fight.

States with Licensing Requirements that Apply to All Guns

The eight states listed below have enacted the strongest licensing laws because they require licenses to possess, permits to purchase, and/or firearm safety certificates for all classes of firearms. Many of the states below also require applicants for a license or permit to successfully complete safety training courses.

California: Firearm Safety Certificate

California requires a Firearm Safety Certificate (“FSC”) prior to purchase of any firearm.35

  • Duration: California FSCs are valid for five years from the date of issue.
  • No Limit on Number of Firearms Purchased: California limits people from acquiring a handgun or semiautomatic centerfire rifle if they already acquired another handgun or semiautomatic centerfire rifle in the previous 30 days.36
  • Safety Training? Yes, applicants must complete required safety training.37

Connecticut: Permit to Purchase

Connecticut requires a person who wishes to purchase or receive a handgun to obtain a permit to carry a handgun or a handgun eligibility certificate. Connecticut also requires a person who wishes to purchase or receive a long gun to obtain a long gun eligibility certificate, a permit to carry a handgun, or a handgun eligibility certificate. Permits and certificates may be revoked in the event the holder becomes disqualified.

  • Duration: Connecticut permits and certificates are valid for five years from the date of issue.
  • No Limit on Number of Firearms Purchased: Connecticut does not impose any limit on the number of long guns that may be purchased by the holder of a permit or certificate; however, Connecticut limits purchases of handguns at retail to three per month.38
  • Safety Training? Yes, applicants must complete required safety training.39

District of Columbia: Registration

Details about D.C.’s registration requirements for all firearms can be found in our summary on Registration of Firearms in the District of Columbia

  • Duration: D.C. previously required firearm registrants to renew their registration certificates every three years, but this requirement was struck down under the Second Amendment by a federal appeals court.40
  • No Limit on Number of Firearms Purchased: D.C. previously prohibited registering more than one handgun in D.C. during any 30-day period, but this requirement was also struck down in the same appeals court decision.41
  • Safety Training? Yes, applicants must complete required safety training.42

Hawaii: Permit to Purchase

In Hawaii, anyone wishing to acquire a firearm must obtain a permit from the county chief of police.43 As part of the application process, applicants undergo a background check and must sign a waiver allowing access to mental health records. Permits may not issue until at least 14 days have passed after the date of application, and all permits must be issued or denied before the 20th day from the date of application.44 Permits may be revoked for good cause.

  • Duration: Permits to acquire a handgun are valid for 10 days from the date of issue, and long gun permits are valid for one year from date of issue.
  • Single Purchase: Handgun purchases are limited to one handgun per permit.
  • Safety Training? Yes, applicants must complete required safety training.45

Illinois: License to Purchase or Possess

Illinois law generally requires people to obtain a license called a Firearm Owner’s Identification (“FOID”) Card, issued by the Illinois Department of State Police, in order to lawfully acquire or possess firearms or ammunition.46 (People who have valid permits to carry concealed handguns may possess firearms and ammunition without a FOID Card, but generally require a FOID Card in order to acquire firearms).47 Upon receiving an application, DSP conducts an automated search of its criminal history record information files and those of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, including the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”), and of the files of the state Department of Human Services relating to mental health and developmental disabilities to obtain any felony conviction or patient hospitalization information which would disqualify a person from obtaining or maintaining a FOID card.48

Since January 1, 2014, Illinois law has generally required unlicensed sellers to contact DSP at the point of sale or transfer of a gun to verify that the transferee’s FOID Card remains valid. Legislation enacted in 2021 also requires DSP to continuously monitor relevant state and federal databases for “firearms prohibitors,” such as criminal history and court records that would prohibit a person from possessing a firearm legally, and to “correlate those records” with FOID Card holders to ensure that people issued FOID Cards remain eligible to possess firearms and retain their FOID.49 DSP may suspend or revoke a FOID card if a FOID holder becomes ineligible to lawfully purchase or possess firearms under state or federal law, becomes subject to a court protective order, or otherwise becomes ineligible to possess a FOID Card.50

  • Duration: FOID cards are valid for ten years from the date of issue.51 (Legislation enacted in 2021 directed the State Police by January 1, 2023, to develop a process for automatically renewing a person’s FOID at the time that they pass a background check to obtain a firearm from a licensed firearm dealer or a gun show promoter or vendor, if the person has provided a set of fingerprints to the State Police as specified through a live scan fingerprint vendor).52
  • No Limit on Number of Firearms Purchased: Illinois does not impose any limit on the number of firearms that may be purchased by the holder of a FOID card.
  • Safety Training? No safety training requirement.

Massachusetts: License to Possess and Permit to Purchase

In Massachusetts, all firearm possessors are required to obtain either a Firearm Identification (FID) card or a Class A or B license to carry a firearm. FID cardholders are permitted to purchase and possess rifles or shotguns, excluding large capacity weapons.53 A Class A license allows the licensee to purchase and possess all types of lawful firearms; a Class B license is limited to “non-large capacity” handguns and any rifle or shotgun, but does not permit carrying concealed, loaded handguns in a public place.54 All applicants must undergo a background check. The licensing authority has 40 days to approve or deny the application. A FID card or Class A or B license must be revoked or suspended if the holder becomes disqualified from obtaining the card or license.

To purchase a handgun in Massachusetts, a FID cardholder must also obtain a permit to purchase. A permit to purchase is issued at the discretion of the licensing authority for a “proper purpose,” following a background check.

  • Duration: FID cards and Class A and Class B licenses are valid for six years; permits to acquire handguns are valid for 10 days.
  • Single Purchase: Handgun purchases are limited to one handgun per permit. However, there is no limit on the number of firearms that may be purchased with a Class A or Class B license, or on the number of non-large capacity rifles or shotguns that may be purchased with a FID Card.
  • Safety Training? Yes, applicants must complete required safety training.55

Michigan: Permit to Purchase

In 2023, Michigan expanded its law requiring a handgun purchaser to obtain a permit to purchase to all firearms.56 When the law goes into effect in early 2024, any person purchasing a handgun or long gun must obtain a permit even if they are purchasing a firearm from a federally licensed gun dealer. A concealed carry license may be used in lieu of a permit to purchase but will not exempt a purchaser from a point-of-sale background check.57 An individual purchasing a long gun who has a background check performed on the individual by a federally licensed firearms dealer not more than 5 days before the purchase is also exempt from the permit requirement.

  • Duration: Purchase permits are valid for 30 days.
  • No Limit on Number of Firearms Purchased: Michigan does not impose any limit on the number of firearms that may be purchased with a permit to purchase or concealed carry license.
  • Safety Training? Safety training is not required to obtain a permit to purchase.

New Jersey: Permit to Purchase

In New Jersey, all handgun purchasers must obtain a permit to purchase a handgun, while purchasers of rifles or shotguns must obtain a Firearms Purchaser Identification Card (FPIC). Both require the applicant to undergo a background check and waive confidentiality relating to any institutional confinement for a mental or psychiatric condition. New Jersey law also provides that no handgun transfer permit or FPIC may be issued where the transfer would not be in the interest of the public health, safety or welfare. In addition, a handgun permit or FPIC shall not be denied to a person unless they known in the community in which they live as someone who has engaged in acts or made statements suggesting the person is likely to engage in conduct, other than justified self-defense, that would pose a danger to self or others.58. The FPIC or permit must be issued within 30 days of application, or 45 days if the applicant is a non-resident. A FPIC may be revoked by a superior court after a hearing with notice, upon a finding that the holder no longer qualifies for the FPIC. Beginning in 2023, FPICs must be electronically linked to the fingerprints of the permittee.59

  • Duration: Handgun purchase permits in New Jersey are valid for 90 days, and may be extended for an additional 90 days for good cause. New Jersey FPICs are valid as long as the holder remains eligible to possess a firearm.
  • Single Purchase: Handgun purchases are limited to one handgun per permit and one handgun per 30-day period.60
  • Safety Training? An applicant for a permit to purchase a handgun or a firearms purchaser identification card must demonstrate that, within four years prior to the date of the application, the applicant satisfactorily completed an approved course in the lawful and safe handling and storage of firearms.

Oregon: Permit to Purchase

In November 2022, Oregon voters enacted a gun safety ballot initiative titled Measure 114 (“The Reduction of Gun Violence Act”) that, among other things, requires a permit to be authorized to purchase or acquire firearms. This permit is issued pursuant to a fingerprint background check, safety training requirements (for first time permit applicants), and law enforcement vetting. Once issued, the permit is generally valid for five years and makes a person eligible to purchase any number of firearms, although a permit holder must still generally purchase and acquire firearms through licensed gun dealers, pursuant to a separate point-of-sale background check.

States with Licensing Requirements for Certain Classes of Weapons

The five states listed below all require licenses or permits for purchase or possession of handguns, but not other types of guns.61 Of the below states, only Delaware, Maryland and Rhode Island require safety training to receive a license or permit.

Additionally, though it does not require a license or permit to purchase a gun, Washington requires safety training certification for purchase of semiautomatic rifles.


A Delaware law enacted in May 2024 requires that a person obtain a permit before buying or receiving a handgun. A permit is valid for 2 years. Pennsylvania applicants must complete a firearm safety training course that includes instruction in safe firearm handling and storage, state and federal laws, and live firearms training, among other requirements. This law will be implemented no later than November 2025.


Maryland requires that a person obtain a permit before the person buys, rents, or receives a handgun. A permit is valid for 10 years. Maryland applicants must complete an approved safety training course that includes instruction on state firearms law, home firearm safety, handgun mechanisms and operation, and an orientation component that demonstrates the person’s safe operation and handling of a firearm.


As of August 1, 2023, Minnesota will require handgun and semiautomatic military-style assault weapon purchasers to obtain a transferee permit unless the purchaser is purchasing or transacting the sale through a federally licensed dealer. A concealed carry permit constitutes a transferee permit for the purpose of purchasing a handgun or assault weapon. Transferee permits are valid for one year.


Nebraska issues handgun certificates, although handgun purchasers outside Omaha who purchase from licensed dealers or who have a concealed weapons permit do not need a handgun certificate. Purchasers from private sellers must obtain a handgun certificate. Handgun certificates are valid for three years.

New York

New York requires a license to purchase or possess a handgun or semiautomatic rifle.62 Licenses in New York must be recertified every five years and handgun licenses must specify the weapon by caliber, make, model, manufacturer’s name and serial number. Specific provisions apply to permits in New York City, where the duration is three years, and in Nassau, Suffolk, and Westchester Counties, where the duration is five years.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island requires a pistol/revolver safety certificate issued by the state Department of Environmental Management. The certificate remains valid indefinitely. In Rhode Island, anyone wishing to purchase a handgun who does not have a concealed handgun license and is not a member of law enforcement must complete a basic two-hour handgun safety course.63


Though there is no formal certificate or permitting process, effective July 1, 2019, Washington requires purchasers of semiautomatic rifles to have completed a safety training program in the past five years. This program must include instruction on: basic firearms safety, safe storage, talking to children about gun safety, suicide prevention, safe handling of firearms, and state and federal firearms laws, including prohibited firearms transfers.


Gun violence is a complex problem, and while there’s no one-size-fits-all solution, we must act. Our reports bring you the latest cutting-edge research and analysis about strategies to end our country’s gun violence crisis at every level.

Learn More

Selected Local Law

New York City

As noted above, while state law in New York requires a person to obtain a permit for the purchase or possession of a handgun, this requirement does not apply to rifles or shotguns. In New York City, however, a permit is required for the purchase or possession of rifles or shotguns. Permits are issued following a background check and are valid for three years. Permits are renewed automatically unless the police commissioner has reason to believe the applicant’s status has changed since the previous application. Permits may be revoked and weapons seized upon evidence that the holder of the permit has become disqualified. A rifle or shotgun permit is also required for possession of rifle or shotgun ammunition and a rifle or shotgun ammunition feeding device.64

Key Legislative Elements

The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered.65 A jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.

  • License must be shown prior to purchase of a firearm from any seller, even if the seller is not a licensed dealer 
  • License requires comprehensive vetting, background checks, and safety training requirements, including:
    • Thorough fingerprint-based background check 
    • Safety training course and written exam to demonstrate knowledge of gun safety laws, responsibilities, and safe handling
    • Hands-on testing, including firing testing, to demonstrate safe use of firearms.
  • License has finite duration 
  • Renewal process includes background check and safety training requirements
  • License is subject to clear and mandatory revocation and firearm relinquishment requirements in cases where the license holder becomes legally disqualified from keeping firearms or fails to comply with applicable federal, state, and local gun safety laws.
  • Fee for license is set at a level sufficient to cover administrative costs associated with licensing system.
  • Firearm seller or transferor must obtain a copy of the purchaser’s license, record a description of the firearm purchased, and forward this record to law enforcement.66
  1. Alexander D. McCourt, et al, “Purchaser Licensing, Point-of-Sale Background Check Laws, and Firearm Homicide and Suicide in 4 US States, 1985–2017,” American Journal of Public Health 110, no. 10 (2020): 1546–1552.[]
  2. Id.[]
  3. Id.[]
  4. Id.[]
  5. Cassandra K. Crifasi, et al., “Association Between Firearm Laws and Homicide in Urban Counties,” Journal of Urban Health 95, no. 3 (2018): 383–390.[]
  6. Daniel W. Webster, et al, “Evidence Concerning the Regulation of Firearms Design, Sale, and Carrying on Fatal Mass Shootings in the United States,” Criminology & Public Policy 19, no. 1 (2020): 171–212.[]
  7. Cassandra K. Crifasi, et al., “The association between permit-to-purchase laws and shootings by police,” Injury Epidemiology 10, no. 28 (2023).[]
  8. Daniel W. Webster, Jon S. Vernick, and Lisa M. Hepburn, “Relationship Between Licensing, Registration, and Other Gun Sales Laws and the Source State of Crime Guns,” Injury Prevention 7, no. 3 (2001): 184–189; Glenn L. Pierce, Anthony A. Braga, and Garen J. Wintemute, “Impact of California Firearms Sales Laws and Dealer Regulations on the Illegal Diversion of Guns,” Injury Prevention 21, no. 3 (2015): 179–184.[]
  9. D.W. Webster, J.S. Vernick, E.E. McGinty, and T. Alcorn, “Preventing the Diversion of Guns to Criminals through Effective Firearm Sales Laws,” in Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis, eds. Daniel W. Webster and Jon S. Vernick (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013), 109-122.[]
  10. Id.[]
  11. Tim Malloy and Pat Smith, “U.S. Voter Support For Abortion Is High, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; 94 Percent Back Universal Gun Background Checks,” Quinnipiac University Poll, May 22, 2019,[]
  12. Id.[]
  13. The categories in this summary do not include states that issue permits to carry concealed weapons. That topic is addressed in our summary on Concealed Carry. Nor does this summary include a description of state background check requirements; that is covered in our summary on Background Check Procedures.[]
  14. Cal. Penal Code §§ 16370, 16670, 26840-26859, 31610-31700.[]
  15. In California, universal background checks help to ensure that prohibited persons would not be permitted to purchase firearms, notwithstanding the long duration of the Firearm Safety Certificate (FSC). To address the problem posed by gun owners who could fall into a prohibited category while the FSC remains valid, the state maintains a Prohibited Armed Persons File, an on-line database that allows the California Department of Justice to cross-reference information on persons who own or possess a firearm against a list of individuals who have become ineligible to own or possess firearms. Cal. Penal Code §§ 30000, 30005. This information may be shared with a limited group of public and private entities and individuals, including law enforcement, for the purpose of determining if persons are armed yet prohibited from possessing firearms. Cal. Penal Code § 30000.[]
  16. Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 29-33, 29-36f – 29-36i, 29-37a, 29-38g – 29-38j.[]
  17. Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, §§ 1448A, 1448B, 1448D.[]
  18. D. C. Code Ann. §§ 7-2502.01 – 7-2502.10; D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, D.C. Mun. Regs. tit. 24, §§ 2311 – 2320.[]
  19. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 134-2, 134-13.[]
  20. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/1 – 65/15a.[]
  21. Md. Code Ann. Pub. Safety § 5-117.1. 2013 Md. SB 281 (Approved by the Governor May 16, 2013).[]
  22. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, §§ 121, 129B, 129C, 131, 131A, 131E, 131P.[]
  23. Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 28.422, 28.422a.[]
  24. 2023 HB 4138, effective in early 2024.[]
  25. Michigan’s permit requirement appears to apply to purchase but not possession, although Michigan’s law says that the license is required to “purchase, carry, possess, or transport a pistol.” The word “possess” was added in 2008. 2008 Mich. ALS 195 (effective January 7, 2009). However, the law also says, “A license is void unless used within 30 days after the date it is issued.” Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.422. In addition, individuals who obtain a handgun from a licensed dealer after a background check are exempt from the license requirement. Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.422a.[]
  26. Minn. Stat. § 624.7134, subds. 2 and 3.[]
  27. Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. §§ 69-2404, 69-2407, 69-2409.[]
  28. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-3.[]
  29. New Jersey’s law appears to prohibit “possession” without a permit, but exempts possession in the home or place of business from this requirement, making this prohibition apply primarily to guns in public. See N.J. Stat. §§ 2C:39-5, 2C:39-6(e).[]
  30. New Jersey’s handgun permit may be extended for an additional 90 days upon a showing of good cause.[]
  31. N.Y. Penal Law §§ 400.00 – 400.01.[]
  32. 2022 OR Ballot Measure 114; Section 4.[]
  33. R. I. Gen. Laws §§ 11-47-35 – 11-47-35.1.[]
  34. Rev. Code Wash. (ARCW) § 9.41.090(2).[]
  35. California has also implemented universal background checks to help ensure that prohibited persons cannot purchase firearms. For more information, see note 10 above, and our page on Background Checks in California.[]
  36. See 2019 CA SB 61; Cal. Penal Code § 27535.[]
  37. To obtain a California FSC, the applicant must pass a written safety test. In addition, subject to limited exceptions, all firearm purchasers in California are required to perform a safe handling demonstration with the firearm being purchased in the presence of a certified instructor. California law specifies various safe handling tasks the prospective purchaser must perform based on the type of firearm to be purchased.[]
  38. Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-33(f)(1).[]
  39. Applicants for a handgun eligibility certificate, a permit to carry a handgun, or a long gun eligibility certificate must successfully complete an approved course in the safety and use of firearms.[]
  40. Heller v. District of Columbia (“Heller III”), 801 F.3d 264, 277-278, 281 (D.C. Cir. 2015) (striking down D.C. Code Ann. § 7-2502.07a).[]
  41. Id. at 279-80 (striking down D.C. Code § 7-2502.03(e).[]
  42. An applicant to register a firearm in D.C. must complete a firearms training and safety class. See D.C. Code § 7-2502.03(a)(13).[]
  43. Hawaii also requires registration of all firearms. Registration requirements are outlined in our summary on the Registration of Firearms.[]
  44. Several exceptions exist to the 14-day waiting period, including transfers to law enforcement officers, persons licensed to carry a handgun, and sales to licensed dealers.[]
  45. Hawaii requires handgun permit applicants to complete an approved course that focuses on: (1) the safe use, handling and storage of firearms and firearms safety in the home; and (2) state firearms laws. Hawaii includes firing training as one of several options available to applicants to satisfy the firearms safety training requirement. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 134-2(g).[]
  46. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(1), (2).[]
  47. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a), (c-5).[]
  48. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.1(b); 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8.2.[]
  49. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8.5.[]
  50. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/8; 65/8.2; 65/8.3.[]
  51. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/7.[]
  52. 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/3.1(b-5); 65/4(a-25).[]
  53. Massachusetts defines “large capacity weapon” to include assault weapons, certain semi-automatic weapons, and certain large capacity rotating-cylinder firearms.[]
  54. A Class A license allows the licensee to purchase, rent, lease, borrow, possess and carry all types of lawful firearms, including both large and non-large capacity handguns, rifles, shotguns, and feeding devices and ammunition for these firearms. Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 140, § 131(a).[]
  55. Applicants for a FID card, Class A or Class B license, or permit to purchase a handgun must submit a basic firearms safety certificate issued following a course that includes instruction on: (1) the safe use, handling and storage of firearms; (2) methods for securing and childproofing firearms; (3) the applicable laws relating to the possession, transportation and storage of firearms; and (4) knowledge of operation, potential dangers and basic competency in the ownership and usage of firearms.[]
  56. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.422.[]
  57. Mich. Comp. Laws Serv. § 28.422a.[]
  58. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:58-3(c).[]
  59. Id. at (d).[]
  60. For limits on the number of firearms that may be purchased over a specified time period, see our summary on  Sales of Multiple Guns.[]
  61. State laws in Nebraska and New York explicitly require a background check prior to issuance of the requisite handgun license or permit and, in New York’s case, semiautomatic rifles. The handgun licensing systems in Maryland and Rhode Island are designed primarily to ensure that the handgun owner has undergone the required safety training; those three states have other laws that require a background check before sale of a handgun.[]
  62. In New York, in addition to passing a background check to verify that the applicant is not prohibited from possessing a firearm, no one may possess a handgun unless he or she is of “good moral character” and presents “no good cause” for denial of the license.[]
  63. Rhode Island’s concealed handgun licensing process includes a requirement that the applicant pass a target shooting test. R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-15. Rhode Island does not require firing training or testing for other handgun licensees.[]
  64. New York, N.Y., Admin. Code § 10-131, 10-303 et seq., Rules tit. 38, § 3-01 et seq.[]
  65. The most comprehensive system of regulating the purchase, possession and ownership of firearms combines licensing of gun owners with registration of all firearms. Additional information on registration of firearms, including the features of comprehensive registration laws, is contained in our summary on the Registration of Firearms.[]
  66. See, e.g., Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-2. See our summary on Maintaining Records on Gun Sales for more information about these laws.[]