Ghost guns—dangerous, homemade untraceable firearms—are increasingly being used to circumvent both federal and state gun laws and kill innocent people.
Ghost guns, which include firearms assembled from kits or made with 3D printers, are untraceable by law enforcement and often undetectable by metal detectors. These guns pose a grave threat to public safety, and people who are legally prohibited from owning firearms are able to create them without consequences in most states. Legislators should act immediately to pass laws regulating the production and distribution of ghost guns before they become more widespread.
When American gun laws were written, legislators assumed that firearms would either be imported from abroad by dealers or manufactured domestically by professional gun manufacturers. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of efforts to circumvent these laws by exploiting the loopholes that result from that assumption. Selling gun parts and components that can easily be used to build a firearm is one such loophole since buyers of unfinished gun parts or components are not required to undergo a background check. Similarly, other federal and state laws that regulate gun sales or purchases often do not apply to unfinished parts and components.
Self-assembled firearms—which can be built from kits or 3D printed—are referred to as ghost guns because they do not come with a serial number and are untraceable. In the traditional manufacturing process, the firearm manufacturer or importer will affix a serial number and markings that identify the manufacturer or importer, make, model, and caliber. Using this information, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) can track firearms from the manufacturer or importer through the distribution chain to the first retail purchaser. ATF works extensively with other law enforcement agencies to trace firearms using this technique—in 2017 alone, ATF conducted more than 408,000 traces.1
When law enforcement agencies recover firearms that have been used in crimes, the agencies can usually trace the firearms to their first retail purchaser and use that information to investigate and solve the crime. Tracing is a powerful investigative tool, but it is dependent on the ability to identify firearms based on their serial numbers. Because the purveyors of the parts and kits used to make untraceable guns claim that they are not selling firearms, they also assert that these serialization requirements do not apply to them. Without a serial number, law enforcement cannot run a trace search on a firearm, making it difficult, if not impossible, to determine the chain of custody from the gun itself.
Furthermore, these guns may be produced largely or even entirely from plastic, which can render them undetectable by traditional security scanning systems. Ghost gun purveyors thus provide access to untraceable, undetectable firearms to individuals who have not passed—and potentially could not pass—a background check.
Making Untraceable and Undetectable Guns
Some untraceable guns are assembled from parts purchased online. Under federal law, only a “frame” or “receiver” (the key component that houses the firing mechanism) of a firearm must carry a serial number. Anyone purchasing a receiver is subject to a background check. Creative online retailers have devised a way to skirt federal serialization and background check requirements by marketing “unfinished” frames or receivers that can be turned into fully functioning frames or receivers with minimal tools or effort. Pre-programmed milling machines are available online that will produce a fully functional receiver from an unfinished receiver with the press of a button. Sold in this form, these unfinished frames or receivers are not required to carry serial numbers and can be sold without a background check according to the standards set by ATF.
Untraceable guns can also be created using new manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing, which allows a person to produce a three-dimensional object such as a firearm much in the way that a traditional printer can produce a printed document. A high-quality, easy-to-use model is available for about $2,500, roughly the cost of a high-end AR-15–style rifle. Entry-level 3D printers are available for under $200.
In 2012, a self-described anarchist began using 3D-printing technology to create firearms. He developed computer code that would allow anyone with a 3D-printing machine to produce firearm components, including lower receivers, and posted that code on the internet. Receivers manufactured with 3D printers are not as durable as traditional metal receivers, but firearms built using them can be just as deadly. An assault rifle assembled using a 3D-printed lower receiver can fire over six hundred rounds—three times the number fired in the Pulse nightclub shooting that left 49 dead and 53 wounded. He also developed code to produce fully functional firearms from scratch. One such firearm is a pistol made almost entirely from plastic capable of firing a .380-caliber bullet. The only component that wasn’t manufactured using the 3D printer was the firing pin, which was simply an ordinary nail that could be purchased at any hardware store.
With that code publicly available, anyone with an internet connection and a 3D printer could produce a fully functional and unserialized firearm without a background check. And because these downloadable guns can be made entirely, or almost entirely, from plastic, they may be undetectable at security checkpoints that use metal detectors.
Untraceable guns are increasingly used by illegal gun trafficking rings across the country. A 2015 bust of a ghost-gun trafficking ring in Long Island revealed ghost guns as the “new frontier of illegal firearms trafficking.”2 In July 2018, the Los Angeles Police Department broke up a brazen gang-trafficking enterprise in Los Angeles.3 Individuals have been caught manufacturing and selling untraceable guns in locations across the country.4 For example, in April 2018 a New Jersey grand jury indicted a man for unlawfully manufacturing and selling untraceable guns after law enforcement seized nearly three dozen weapons from his home, including nearly 20 untraceable guns.5
Ghost guns have also been used in multiple recent shootings. In 2014 a man who failed a background check and could not legally purchase a gun built an assault rifle from a ghost gun kit, then used it on a rampage at a college campus in Southern California, firing 100 rounds and killing five people.6 In 2017 a California man prosecutors described as a “deranged, paranoid killer” who was prohibited from owning a gun and under prosecution for multiple crimes, was nevertheless able to kill six people and injure 10 with two assault-style rifles he assembled using parts ordered online.7 In 2019 a sixteen-year-old boy used a self-assembled untraceable firearm in a school shooting in Santa Clarita, CA, killing two students and injuring three others.8
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Other tragedies have been narrowly averted. In Pennsylvania, a police officer responding to a call outside Philadelphia shot and killed a convicted felon who had threatened to shoot the officer with a homemade gun made with parts he ordered online.9 The following month, police averted a school shooting outside Philadelphia by a student who had assembled an untraceable gun he had purchased online.10
Summary of Federal Law
Federal law prohibits some undetectable firearms. The Undetectable Firearms Act requires that all firearms be detectable by metal detectors “after removal of grips, stocks, and magazines.”11 It also requires that all major components of firearms—defined to include “the barrel, the slide or cylinder, or the frame or receiver”—must be detectable by x-ray machines.12
However, the Undetectable Firearms Act does not specify what portion of the firearm must be detectable by a metal detector. This could allow an individual to create a mostly plastic but technically compliant firearm, using a 3D printer or other technology, that contains metal in an extraneous part of the firearm that could be removed prior to entering a security area.
Summary of State Law
Ten states (California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Nevada13, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Washington) and the District of Columbia have enacted laws to at least partially address the problem of undetectable or untraceable guns. Further restrictions have also been implemented at the local level.14
California’s ghost gun law, which was enacted in 2016 and first became effective in July 2018, imposes several requirements on anyone who manufactures or assembles a firearm:
- A self-assembled firearm must contain a unique serial number provided by the California Department of Justice (DOJ).15 If the firearm is made from plastic, the serial number must be engraved or affixed on a piece of metal large enough to be detected by metal detectors and embedded within the plastic.16
- The individual must provide information about the newly serialized firearm, including the identity of the owner of the firearm, to DOJ.17 Firearms manufactured or assembled pursuant to these provisions are for personal use only and cannot be sold or transferred.18
- Anyone in possession of an unserialized firearm who manufactured a firearm before the law went into effect in July 2018 must apply to the DOJ for a serial number and must serialize the firearm, or must surrender the unserialized firearm to law enforcement.19
- The law also expressly prohibits individuals or companies from knowingly allowing, facilitating, aiding, or abetting the manufacture or assembly of a firearm by individuals prohibited from possessing a firearm under state law.20
- In addition, self-assembled firearms must be compliant with the requirements of California’s Unsafe Handgun Act, which requires that handguns meet certain safety specifications. See our Design Safety Standards for Handguns in California policy summary for a comprehensive discussion of the Unsafe Handguns Act.
In 2019, California enacted broader legislation that will require the sale of certain firearm components or “firearm precursor parts” used to assemble ghost guns, including unfinished frames and receivers, to be conducted through licensed dealers, ammunition vendors, or firearm precursor part vendors, pursuant to a background check and sale record, and other requirements. (This legislation was originally set to go into full effect in July 2025, but California passed a law in 2020 to expedite implementation of most of these new ghost gun requirements to July 1, 2022).21
- Prohibits the sale or receipt of an unfinished frame or receiver unless (1) the sale complies with all regulations for the sale of a pistol or revolver and carries a serial number, (2) the transfer is between FFLs, or (3) pre-arranged surrender to law enforcement.
- Requires that individuals manufacturing guns that are not subject to federal serialization requirements acquire a serial number from the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection and affix it to the firearm, and requires that such individuals pass a background check before being issued a serial number.
- Prohibits the possession of unfinished frames or receivers by those prohibited from possessing firearms.
- Prohibits aiding or abetting of the manufacture of a firearm by a prohibited person.
- Prohibits the manufacture of a plastic firearm that “after removal of grips, stocks, and magazines” is not detectable by standard metal detectors.
Delaware prohibits ghost guns. Under Delaware law:
- Unfinished frames and receivers must have serial numbers.23
- Unfinished frames and receivers cannot be sold except by licensed firearm manufacturers and dealers.24
- Sellers of unfinished frames and receivers must retain records of the sales.25
- Untraceable firearms are prohibited.26
- Undetectable firearms are prohibited.27
District of Columbia
The District of Columbia comprehensively regulates ghost guns.
With certain exceptions, the District defines a ghost gun28 as:
- A firearm that, after the removal of grips, stocks, and magazines, is not as detectable by walk-through metal detectors;
- A firearm of which no major component is as detectable by walk-through metal detectors;
- Any major component of a firearm that, when subjected to inspection by the types of detection devices commonly used at secure public buildings and transit stations, does not generate an image that accurately depicts the shape of the component; or
- A firearm, including a frame or receiver, that lacks a unique serial number engraved or cast on it by a licensed manufacturer or importer in accordance with federal law, assigned by the agency of a State and permanently engraved or cast on the firearm, or otherwise placed on the firearm in compliance with local law.
Unfinished frame or receiver means29 any forging, casting, printing, extrusion, machined body, or similar article that:
- Has reached a stage in manufacture where it may readily be completed, assembled, or converted to be a functional frame or receiver when combined with other parts; or
- Is marketed or sold to the public to become or be used as the frame or receiver of a functional firearm once the frame or receiver has been completed.
A person may register a self-assembled firearm for personal use30 so long as the person affixes a serial number onto the firearm in accord with the requirements of D.C. Code § 7-2502.02(c). A person who self-assembles a firearm must submit a registration application within five days of assembling the firearm.31
Hawaii regulates the manufacture, sale, and possession of ghost guns that:32
- Prohibits an unlicensed individual from possessing, purchasing, producing with a three-dimensional printer, or otherwise obtaining separately, or as part of a kit:
- A firearm receiver that is not imprinted with a serial number registered with a federally licensed manufacturer;
- A firearm receiver that has not been provided a serial number that may be registered by a licensed gun dealer; or
- Any combination of parts from which a firearm having no serial number may be readily assembled; provided that the parts do not have the capacity to function as a firearm unless assembled.
- Requires firearms assembled from parts created using a three-dimensional printer to have a serial number engraved on stainless steel and permanently embedded to the firearm receiver during fabrication or construction.
- Requires a dealer who brings into the state separate parts and an unfinished firearm receiver that when assembled create a firearm, or parts created by a three-dimensional printer that when assembled create a firearm, must register the unfinished firearm receiver and receive a serial number before the assembly of the firearm or the sale or transfer of unassembled firearm parts or a receiver to a third party.
- Requires any sale or transfer of unfinished firearm receivers by an authorized dealer to a third party shall be conducted as if they were fully assembled firearms and subject to the same background checks and licensing requirements.
In 2021, Nevada enacted a comprehensive ghost gun law.
Under the law, a person cannot manufacture, assemble, possess, sell, offer to sell, transfer, purchase, transport, or receive a firearm that is not imprinted with a serial number issued by a firearms importer or manufacturer in accordance with federal law and regulations.33
The law also provided that it would be unlawful for any person other than a licensed firearms importer or manufacturer to possess, purchase, transport, receive, sell, offer to sell, or transfer an unfinished frame or receiver unless it is required by federal law to be imprinted with a serial number issued by a firearms importer or manufacturer and has been imprinted with the serial number.34 However, before the law could take effect, a trial court found this portion of the law unconstitutional.35 Appeals will determine the final enforceability of Nevada’s ghost gun law.
New Jersey’s ghost gun law was enacted in 2018 and further strengthened in 2019. The law:
- Prohibits the purchase or acquisition of parts, including unserialized frames or receivers, “from which a firearm without a serial number may be readily manufactured or otherwise assembled.”36
- Prohibits using a 3D printer to produce a firearm or firearm components, including a receiver or magazine, unless the acquirer is registered or licensed by the state as a firearm manufacturer or dealer.37
- Prohibits the distribution of computer code capable of manufacturing firearms and firearm components using a 3D printer to anyone but a manufacturer licensed under state law.38
- Expands the federal prohibition on undetectable firearms, requiring that the major components of a firearm must be detectable by security screening devices.39
In 2019, New Jersey strengthened its ghost gun law by making it a crime to knowingly possess, or to transfer, ship, sell or dispose of, a firearm manufactured or otherwise assembled using a firearm frame or firearm that is not imprinted with a serial number registered with a federally licensed manufacturer.40
New York prohibits undetectable firearms, which include firearms that:
- Cannot be detected by metal detectors after the removal of grips, stocks, and magazines.41
- Have a barrel, slide or cylinder, frame, or receiver that cannot be imaged by security screening devices commonly used at airports.42
As of February 25, 2022, New York will also prohibit untraceable firearms, including:
- The possession and sale of unserialized, unfinished frames and receivers, except in the case of licensed gunsmiths.43
- The possession and sale of unserialized firearms.44
- “Ghost gun” means ““a firearm, including a frame or receiver, that lacks a unique serial number engraved or cased in metal alloy on the frame or receiver by a licensed manufacturer, maker, or importer under federal law or markings in accordance with 27 C.F.R. § 479.102.” 46
- “Undetectable firearm” means
- “[A]ny firearm that:
- After removal of all parts, other than a major component, is not as detectable by walk- through metal detectors commonly used at airports or other public buildings; or
- Any major component of which, if subjected to inspection by the types of detection devices commonly used at airports or other public buildings for security screening, would not generate an image that accurately depicts the shape of the component; or
- Is manufactured wholly of plastic, fiberglass, or through a 3D printing process; or
- Upon which the frame or receiver lacks a unique serial number engraved or cased into on the frame or receiver by a licensed manufacturer, maker, or importer under federal law, or markings in accordance with 27 C.F.R. § 479.102. Provided, however, this subsection shall not apply to any firearm rendered permanently inoperable or a firearm manufactured prior to 1968.” 47
- “[A]ny firearm that:
Virginia prohibits the manufacture, importation, sale, transfer or possession of any “plastic firearm,” defined as any firearm containing less than 3.7 ounces of electromagnetically detectable metal in the barrel, slide, cylinder, frame or receiver and which, when subjected to inspection by X-ray machines commonly used at airports, does not generate an image that accurately depicts its shape.48
- “Undetectable firearm” means any firearm that is not as detectable as 3.7 ounces of 17-4 PH stainless steel by walk-through metal detectors or magnetometers commonly used at airports or any firearm where the barrel, the slide or cylinder, or the frame or receiver of the firearm would not generate an image that accurately depicts the shape of the part when examined by the types of X-ray machines commonly used at airports.
- “Untraceable firearm” means any firearm manufactured after July 1, 2019, that is not an antique firearm and that cannot be traced by law enforcement by means of a serial number affixed to the firearm by a federally licensed manufacturer or importer.50
It is illegal in the state to:
- Manufacture, own, buy, sell, loan, furnish, transport, or possess an undetectable firearm or any part designed and intended solely and exclusively for use in an undetectable firearm.51
- Assemble or repair any undetectable firearm.52
- Manufacture an untraceable firearm with the intent to sell it.53
- Assist a person who is prohibited from possessing firearms or who has signed a voluntary firearms waiver with manufacturing an undetectable or untraceable firearm.54
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Key Legislative Elements
The features listed below are intended to provide a framework from which policy options may be considered. Any jurisdiction considering new legislation should consult with counsel.
- Prohibit untraceable guns by requiring that 3D-printed firearms and unfinished frames and receivers carry a serial number.
- Prohibit the indiscriminate distribution of code to produce 3D-printed guns—for example, only allow distribution to a specific individual after a background check has been conducted, or only allow distribution to licensed firearm manufacturers.
- Prohibit undetectable firearms by requiring that all operable firearms be detectable by standard screening systems.
- Require a background check before transferring an unfinished frame or receiver.
- Require a license to manufacture or assemble a firearm using unfinished materials or a 3D printer.
Universal background checks are essential to close deadly loopholes in our laws that allow millions of guns to end up in the hands of individuals at an elevated risk of committing violence each year.
Laws that prevent people with significant histories of domestic violence and abuse from accessing firearms are vital to ensuring victims’ safety.
The internet has made it increasingly easy for people who are prohibited from gun ownership to take advantage of the private sale loophole and purchase guns online.
- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, “ATF By the Numbers,” June 14, 2018, https://www.atf.gov/resource-center/infographics/atf-numbers.
- Office of the Attorney General of the State of New York, “A.G. Schneiderman Announces Thirty-Two Count Indictment of Two Defendants Charged with Illegally Trafficking Untraceable ‘Ghost Guns,’” news release, September 21, 2015, https://ag.ny.gov/press-release/ag-schneiderman-announes-thirty-two-count-indictment-two-defendants-charged-illegally.
- Richard Winton, L.A. Gangs Stockpile Untraceable ‘Ghost Guns’ that Members Make Themselves, Los Angeles Times, July 6, 2018, http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-la-gangsters-homemade-guns-20180706-story.html.
- E.g., Tamara Sacharczyk, “Unregistered, Untraceable Guns Recovered in Massachusetts,” WWLP News 22, March 28, 2018, https://www.wwlp.com/news/i-team/unregistered-untraceable-guns-recovered-in-massachusetts/1086053922; Alex Ceneviva, “Bridgeport Police Confiscate Ghost Guns,” WTNH News 8, August 2, 2018, https://www.wtnh.com/news/connecticut/fairfield/bridgeport-police-confiscate-ghost-guns/1341726044; Lauren Sellew, “Warrant: Authorities Began Investigating Southington Man Charged with Firearm Offenses When He Tried to Sell Homemade Rifle Online,” Record-Journal, November 21, 2018, http://www.myrecordjournal.com/News/Southington/Southington-News/Police-Southington-man-charged-after-raid-at-Darling-Street-apartment.html.
- Maxwell Reil, “Man indicted after selling ‘ghost gun’ in Hammonton,” Atlantic City Press, April 13, 2018, https://www.pressofatlanticcity.com/news/man-indicted-after-selling-ghost-gun-in-hammonton/article_16aa48bc-519c-50d5-b66b-748689e9c5b4.html.
- Robert Cavnar, “Santa Monica Shooter Built His Gun From Parts He Bought Online,” Huffington Post, June 15, 2013, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-l-cavnar/santa-monica-shooter-buil_b_3447220.html.
- Ray Sanchez, Jason Hanna, and Phil Gast, “Gunman in Northern California Rampage Was Not Supposed to Have Guns,” CNN, November 15, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/11/15/us/california-tehama-county-shootings/index.html; Damon Arthur, “Sheriff: Tehama Shooter Built His Own Illegal Guns,” Record Searchlight, November 15, 2017, http://www.redding.com/story/news/2017/11/15/tehama-shooter-built-his-own-illegal-guns/868737001/.
- Brad Brooks, “California School Shooting Shines Light on Murky ‘Ghost Gun’ World,” Reuters, November 22, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-california-shooting-ghostgun/california-school-shooting-shines-light-on-murky-ghost-gun-world-idUSKBN1XW1AL.
- Peter Hall and Pamela Lehman, “Suspect in Fatal Walmart Shooting, Banned from Buying Guns, Had Homemade One,” The Morning Call, May 13, 2018, http://www.poconorecord.com/news/20180513/suspect-in-fatal-walmart-shooting-banned-from-buying-guns-had-homemade-one.
- Chad Pradelli, “Police: Exchange Student Charged in High School Threat Built Gun from Parts Bought Online,” ABC 7 News, April 2, 2018, http://abc7news.com/police-exchange-student-built-gun-from-parts-bought-online/3293890/.
- 18 U.S.C. § 922(p)(1)(A).
- 18 U.S.C. § 922(p)(1)(B), (p)(2)(B).
- In late 2021, a Nevada state court found portions of the state’s ghost gun law unconstitutional. Polymer 80, Inc. v. Sisolak, et al., Case No. 21-CV-00690, Order on Motions for Summary Judgment (Nev. 3rd Dist. Dec. 10, 2021). As a result, the provisions prohibiting ghost gun possession and transfer are currently unenforceable. Appeals will determine the final enforceability of Nevada’s ghost gun law.
- E.g., Philadelphia Code Tit. 10 § 10-2002 (prohibiting the manufacture of firearms or firearm parts using a 3D printer without a federal license to manufacture firearms).
- Cal. Penal Code § 29180(b)(1), id. § 29180(b)(2)(A).
- Id. § 29180(b)(2)(B).
- Id. § 29180(b)(3).
- Id. § 29180(d).
- Id. § 29180(c).
- Id. § 29180(f).
- CA SB 118, Sec. 21 – 37.
- Conn. Pub. Act No. 19-6 (2019).
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1459A(a)(2), (b).
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1459A(a)(1).
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1459A(a)(3).
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1463.
- Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1462.
- D.C. Code §§ 7-2501.01(9B).
- D.C. Code §§ 7-2501.01(17B)(A).
- D.C. Code § 7-2504.01(a)(1).
- D.C. Code § 7–2502.06(c).
- Haw. Rev. Stat. § 134-10.2. This statute was first enacted in 2020 as Hawaii H.B. 2744. It was revised in 2021 to add an enumerated prohibition on possession because, according to a legislative note, “persons found to be in possession of firearms having no serial number . . . claim that their actions do not violate the law because the parts used to assemble the firearm were acquired before the September 15, 2020 effective date” of the statute. Haw. H.B. 1366 (2021).
- 2021 AB 286, amending Title 15, Chapter 202.
- Specifically, the court found that the law’s definition of “unfinished frame or receiver” was too vague to support criminal penalties. Polymer 80, Inc. v. Sisolak, et al., Case No. 21-CV-00690, Order on Motions for Summary Judgment (Nev. 3rd Dist. Dec. 10, 2021).
- N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:39-9(k).
- N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:39-9(l)(1).
- N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:39-9(l)(2).
- N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:39-1(ii); id. § 2C:39-9(m).
- N.J. Stat. Ann. §§ 2C:39-3(n); 2C:39-9(n).
- N.Y. Penal Law § 265.50(A)(1); id. § 265.55(A)(1).
- N.Y. Penal Law § 265.50(A)(2); id. § 265.55(A)(2).
- N.Y. Penal Law §§ 265.01(10), 265.63, 265.64, 265.60, 265.61.
- N.Y. Penal Law §§ 265.01(9), 265.07.
- See 2020 RI HB 7102 and 2020 RI SB 2004.
- This does not include firearms that are rendered permanently inoperable. R.I. Gen. Laws Section 11-47-2(8).
- R.I. Gen. Laws Section 11-47-2(18).
- Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308.5.
- 2019 WA HB 1739.
- Rev. Code Wash. § 9.41.010
- Rev. Code Wash. (ARCW) § 9.41.090.
- Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 9.41.325.