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Federal law generally prohibits possession of firearms and ammunition by people who have been found by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority to be a danger to themselves or others, or to lack “the mental capacity to contract or manage [their] own affairs,” as a result of their mental condition or illness.1 Federal law also generally prohibits people from possessing firearms if they have been involuntarily hospitalized or committed to a mental health or substance abuse treatment facility by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority.2

No federal law, however, requires states to report the identities of these individuals when they become ineligible to possess firearms to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (“NICS”) database, which the FBI uses to perform background checks prior to firearm transfers. As a result, state record reporting laws are critical to ensuring the accuracy and effectiveness of the background check system.

Ohio has no laws requiring the reporting of mental health information to NICS. Ohio requires a probate judge who finds an individual to be a mentally ill person subject to hospitalization by court order to notify the Bureau of Criminal Identification and Investigation (“BCII”) of the identity of the individual.3 Similarly, the chief clinical officer of a hospital, agency, or facility must notify BCII if a person becomes an involuntary patient other than one who is a patient only for purposes of observation.4 The officer or judge must use the form prescribed by the attorney general for the notification. The notification must be transmitted by the judge or the officer no later than seven days after the adjudication or commitment.5

State law requires this information to be used for incompetency records checks for concealed weapons permits, and states that this information is confidential.6

For general information on the background check process and laws governing legal access to firearms, see the Ohio Background Check Procedures and Firearm Prohibitions sections.

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  1. Federal law, enacted in 1968, still uses archaic and offensive terminology to prohibit firearm access by people who have been “adjudicated as a mental defective.” 18 USC 922(g)(4). Federal regulations define that term to mean:
    (a) A determination by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority that a person, as a result of marked subnormal intelligence, or mental illness, incompetency, condition, or disease
    (1) Is a danger to himself or to others; or
    (2) Lacks the mental capacity to contract or manage his own affairs.Federal regulation also expressly clarifies that this firearm prohibition applies to:
    (1) A finding of insanity by a court in a criminal case; and
    (2) Those persons found incompetent to stand trial or found not guilty by reason of lack of mental responsibility pursuant to [specified articles] of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. 27 CFR § 478.11.[]
  2. Federal law generally prohibits firearm access by people who have previously been “committed to a mental institution.” 18 USC 922(g)(4). Federal regulations define this term to mean: “A formal commitment of a person to a mental institution by a court, board, commission, or other lawful authority. The term includes a commitment to a mental institution involuntarily. The term includes commitment for mental defectiveness or mental illness. It also includes commitments for other reasons, such as for drug use. The term does not include a person in a mental institution for observation or a voluntary admission to a mental institution.” 27 C.F.R. § 478.11.[]
  3. Ohio Rev. Code § 5122.311.[]
  4. Id.[]
  5. Id.[]
  6. Id.[]